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European Union
Optimistic Outlook
-> Emissions of toxic substances
-> Dangerous pesticides and
chemicals – banned or restricted
-> Rates of recycling are up
-> Environment in EU - protection
Only a few problems solved
-> Problems of the future – much
harder comprehended and brought
under control
-> Individuals – do not understand
the consequences of their actions
Protecting the Water
UE Goal – cleaning all waters by the
end of 2010
7000 million € - regions with less
than 75% average income
Portugal – from 60% (1995) to 95%
Ireland – from 20% (1990) to 80%
Protection of the Life
-> Industrial Development – threat
-> Biodiversity - decrease
-> Natura 2000 program – completed
in 2005
-> Protection vs Development
-> EU supports environmental
projects -> 60 million € - elephant
and jungle conservation
Protection of other areas
Protection of Forests
-> 127,8 million ha in EU
-> Increase of 10% from 1960 to
-> 1995 – 2000 – 650.000 ha created
-> 130.000 ha – rehabilitated
-> 50 million € - tropical forests
Protection of Air
-> Problems : depletion of
stratospheric O3, controlling
acidification and climate change.
-> Greenhouse gas effect ->
attempted to be reduce every year
-> 60% areas from EU – suffer from
-> Balance between rail, road, air
and shipping.
Looking East
Environment – supported by
PHARE and TACIS programmes
Countries of SU – environment a
priority for TACIS
Ten Countries (Estonia, Latvia,
Lithuania, Poland, the Czech
Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria)
-> ratified Europe Agreements
– emphasis of environment
in the accession
- cooperation
- advice -> investment
Then and Now
While the effect of human activity
on the global climate is hotly
debated, physical signs of
environmental change are all
around us.
Some scientists say an increase in
the rate of melting of the world's
glaciers is evidence of global
Argentina's Upsala Glacier was
once the biggest in South America,
but it is now disappearing at a rate
of 200 meters per year.
Other scientists say its reduction is
due to complicated shifts in glacial
dynamics and local geology.
Then and Now
Rising tides
Some scientists predict that a
warmer climate will trigger
more violent storms, which will
cause increased rates of coastal
This is a section of shoreline at
Cape Hatteras in North
Carolina in the USA, pictured in
1999 and 2004. The southern
United States and Caribbean
region were battered by a series
of powerful hurricanes last year.
Rising sea levels are also
expected to speed up coastal
Then and Now
Vanishing islands
Other parts of the world could
face even more drastic change.
The Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC), a
consortium of several thousand
independent scientists, predicts
that sea levels could rise by
between 9 and 88cm in the next
This would threaten low-lying
islands such as Tuvalu in the
Pacific. These images, taken on
the same day this year, show the
effects of a higher than usual
Then and Now
No snow
As the climate warms
up, mountainous
regions may
experience lower levels
of snowfall.
This image shows
Mount Hood in
Oregon at the same
time in late summer in
1985 and 2002
Then and Now
More pests
Tree-eating wood
beetles are likely to
benefit from a warmer
climate and reproduce
in ever-increasing
These images show
damage to White
Spruce trees in Alaska
caused by the pests.
The Climate Change
-Climate change -> big threat
-In the last century – temperature
increased by 0.6ºC.
-In this century – temperature will
increase by a further 1.4 to 5.6.
-Increased level of the sea
-Cause – The ‘greenhouse’ gases
-Kyoto Protocol
The Ozone Hole
1985 – A thinning of the ozone layer
is discovered: “the O3 Hole”
Cause – CFCs used as aerosol
propellants and refrigerants
Ozone destruction – Greater at the
1996 – Scandinavia, Greenland and
Siberia -> 45% depletion
1997 – Antarctic hole – 24 Km
The Ozone Layer
O3 – small concentration into
90% - in Stratosphere – layer
between 10 km and 50 km
The layer – filters sun ultraviolet
Threat – aerosols, volcanic eruptions