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Transcript
Cellular Structure
Nucleus
 The control
center of the
cell
Nuclear Membrane
 Separates the nucleus
from the cytoplasm.
 Controls what enters
or leaves the nucleus.
 Has tiny openings
called pores.
Nucleolus
 Makes ribosome's and
stores messages from
the chromatin for
future use.
 Visible when cell is
not dividing
 Contains RNA for
protein manufacture
Chromatin
 Determines cell
activities and
carries on the
hereditary traits
of the cell.
 Chromosomes
- Usually in the form of
chromatin
- Contains
genetic
information
- Composed of
DNA
- Thicken for cellular
division
- Set number per species
(i.e. 23 pairs for human)
Cytoplasm
 The watery fluid
which contains
the materials
which enter the
cell.
Organelles
 Little, tiny
structures in the
cell performing
specific
activities.
Mitochondria
 The
“powerhouse” of
the cell.
 They create food
to obtain energy
for cell activities.
The cristae greatly increase the inner
membrane's surface area. It is on these
cristae that food (sugar) is combined
with oxygen to produce ATP - the primary
energy source for the cell.
Ribosomes
 Makes
proteins in the
cell. “Protein
factories”.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
 A system of canals
which transport
substances to the
inside of the cell.
 It is also a chemical
producer.
Golgi Apparatus
 Package
proteins for
storage and
secretion from
the cell.
 Creates
lysosomes
Lysosomes
 Digest worn out
or unneeded cells
and cell parts.
Encloses the
materials and
bacteria in food
vacuoles.
Centrioles
 Paired structures
in animal cells
which help in cell
division.
 Only visible in
animal cells, still
in plant cells, but
you can’t see
them.
Vacuole
 Stores food,
water, and
wastes. Much
bigger in plant
cells.
Plastids (Chloroplasts)
 Found only in
plant cells.
Absorbs sunlight
in the process of
photosynthesis.
Cell Membrane
 Controls what enters
and leaves the cell. It
contains the cell
contents and protects
the cell.
 composed of lipids
 hydrophobic lipid ends
facing inward and the
hydrophilic phosphate
ends facing outward.
Also called lipid
bilayer.
Cell Wall
 Thick, outer
wall
surrounding
plant cells.
Helps support
and protect the
plant cell.
Specialized Structures
 Cilia and flagella are often present on
cells that provide locomotion.
Microtubules
 Provide shape and movement through the
cytoplasm
Specialized Organelles found in
Plants
 Plastid :Found in plants
Stores food or pigments
 Cell Wall: Found in plants
o Supports and protects the cell
 Vacuole: Much larger in plant cells. Stores
enzymes and waste products
Specialized Organelles only found in
animal or protist (unicellular
organisms –fungi) cells
 Centriole: Found in animal cells and some
protists. Protein fibers that aid in cell
division
 Cilia: Hair-like microtubules attached to the
plasma membrane that often help in
movement