Download Nuclease Digestion

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Biochemistry wikipedia, lookup

Nucleic acid analogue wikipedia, lookup

List of types of proteins wikipedia, lookup

Protein structure prediction wikipedia, lookup

Deoxyribozyme wikipedia, lookup

Cell-penetrating peptide wikipedia, lookup

Expanded genetic code wikipedia, lookup

Genetic code wikipedia, lookup

Point mutation wikipedia, lookup

Amino acid synthesis wikipedia, lookup

Cyclol wikipedia, lookup

Artificial gene synthesis wikipedia, lookup

Protein adsorption wikipedia, lookup

Bottromycin wikipedia, lookup

Protein wikipedia, lookup

Peptide synthesis wikipedia, lookup

Gene expression wikipedia, lookup

Molecular evolution wikipedia, lookup

Cre-Lox recombination wikipedia, lookup

Protein (nutrient) wikipedia, lookup

Gel electrophoresis of nucleic acids wikipedia, lookup

Protein–protein interaction wikipedia, lookup

Intrinsically disordered proteins wikipedia, lookup

QPNC-PAGE wikipedia, lookup

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins wikipedia, lookup

Protein moonlighting wikipedia, lookup

Vectors in gene therapy wikipedia, lookup

Western blot wikipedia, lookup

Two-hybrid screening wikipedia, lookup

Silencer (genetics) wikipedia, lookup

Gel electrophoresis wikipedia, lookup

Protein folding wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Unit 2: Informational
Macromolecules
Nucleic Acids, Amino acids and protein
structure
MACROMOLECULES
• organized molecules that form the
structure and carry out the activities of
cells
- Carbohydrates- Lipids
- Proteins
- Nucleic acids
CARBOHYDRATES
• Monosaccharides: simple sugars
= the building blocks
• Oligosaccharides: 2-10 sugar groups linked
–
These are often receptors for regulatory
molecules
•
•
Glycolipids (attached to lipids) and
Glycoproteins (attached to proteins)
• Polysaccharides: very long chains of sugars
•
i.e Glycogen
LIPIDS
• Fatty acids: building blocks
• Composed of a hydrophilic
“head” and hydrophobic
“tail”
• Function: energy storage
molecules in the form of
triacylglycerol
PROTEINS
• Amino acids = building blocks
• 4 classes:
– Basic
– Polar
- Acidic
- Non-polar
• Link together through peptide bonds
to form the primary structure of a
protein
• H-bonding and folding lead to
secondary and tertiary structure
Protein Structure
Tertiary structure:
• Side chain interaction determines
how the protein will fold within itself.
– i.e positively charged side chains might
bind negatively charged side chains.
• Changes to these amino acids can
results in changes to protein folding
and therefore affect function.
Quaternary structure: proteins
interacting with other proteins
Food for thought:
When a protein-containing solution
like milk is heated, a protein film
forms on the surface.
Why does it form?
NUCLEIC ACIDS
• Nucleotides: building blocks
• Can be deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
or ribonucleic acid (RNA)
• Are information molecules
• Made up of 3 major components:
– Nitrogen base, sugar, phosphate group
DNA
•
•
•
•
•
vs
Deoxyribonucleotides
Sugar = deoxyribose
Bases = A T C G
Double stranded
All DNA present in
every cell
RNA
•
•
•
•
•
Ribonucleotides
Sugar = ribose
Bases = A U C G
Single stranded
Only present in
cells that express
that gene
Nucleic acid Synthesis
• Synthesis occurs at
the 3’ end of DNA
• The 3’ OH group is
REQUIRED for
synthesis to occur
phosphodiester
bond
Hyrdogen bonding
• Hydrogen bonds are
between complimentary
pairs of purines and
pyrimidines
• Hold together the TWO
strands of DNA
• A-T = 2 hydrogen bonds
• G-C = 3 hydrogen bonds
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?
Practice Question
Which of the two double-stranded DNA molecules
shown below will be most resistant to the
effects of heating
A. 5’-AGCAGTTCATTATTCTCTCGTCGA -3’
3’-TCGTCAAGTAATAAGAGAGCAGCA-5’
or
B. 5’-TCCTCGAGCCTCCTGCGCCGCCGA -3’
3’-AGGAGCTCGGAGGACGCGGCGGCT-5’
Why?