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The four major
Organic molecules part 1
What are we going to
Identify the function of the four
major macromolecules (i.e.
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids,
nucleic acids).
• They are the foundation for the
structure and function of every
living cell in every organism.
• They are the building materials
and the storehouse for energy.
• AKA Carbs
• A carbohydrate is a
simples sugar or a
molecule composed of
two or more simple
• It is composed of
Carbon (C) ,
Hydrogen (H), and
Oxygen (O) in a ratio
of 1:2:1.
More than one class...
• Monosaccharides
are a single sugar
molecule. An
example is
More than one class ....
• Oligosaccharides
are a short chain
of two or more
bonded sugar
units. An
example is
More than one class ....
• Polysaccharides are long straight or
branched chains of hundreds even
thousands of sugar molecules in
length. An example is starch.
• Are organic
molecules that have
more carbonhydrogen (C-H)
bonds and fewer
oxygen atom than
• Commonly called fats
and waxes.
Wash with soap and hot water....
• Lipids do not
dissolve in water due
to the nonpolarity of
the lipid molecules.
So you need a little
bit of soap.
What? We want fats?
• Used for long term energy storage, insulation,
and protective coatings.
• Major component of plasma membranes.
And so do plants?
• Waxes are long chains of fatty acids attached
to an alcohol. Cutin is a wax that helps plants
retain water.
• Large complex polymers
• They are composed of amino acids made of
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and
sometimes sulfur.
Here, there and everywhere...
• They help us
contract our
muscles, transport
O2 in the blood,
and the immune
• They are also part
of the plasma
A little bit of this, a little bit of that..
• Examples: collagen, enzymes, hemoglobin,
insulin, and antibodies
Nucleic Acids
• Nucleic acids are
macromolecules that
store information in
cells in the form of a
• There are four
different types of
nucleotides used to
form a nucleic acid.
Basic structure
• The three parts of a nucleotide are a fivecarbon sugar, a nitrogen containing base, and
a phosphate group.
Nucleotides are pretty useful...
• Are the structural units of adenosine
phosphates (ATP, NAD+, NADP+), nucleotide
coenzymes, and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)