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Transcript
Behavior
Modification I
Lesson 6
Changing Our Behavior

Behavior modification:
Systematically applying behavior
principles to the task of changing
someone’s target behavior
… our own or someone else’s.
Janice & John Baldwin

Operant conditioning principles ~
Some Applications
Personal
  physical fitness
  motivation
 Psychotherapy
 panic attacks
 phobias
 Special education
 basic life skills
 social skills ~

Steps in Behavior Modification

Scientific use of behavior (learning)
principles
 Goal setting
 Behavioral Definitions
 Functional Analysis
 Objective measurement
 Data collection
 Evaluation ~
Goal Setting
Identify target behavior
 the one we wish to change
 Excesses
 undesirable behaviors
 Deficits
 lack certain skills
 Developing human potential
 self-actualization ~

Behavioral Definitions
Careful definition of target behavior
 Detailed (specific) & objective
 measurable in numerical units
 Example
 vague: I want to get better grades.
 effective:
Study 2 hr for ea. class hr
Take 3 pages notes ea. class
Sleep 8 hrs per night ~

Behavioral Definitions
Behavior vs traits
 Dead person rule
 Questions to answer
 What?
 When?
 Where?
 How often?
 How long?
 How to measure/record?
~

Chains of Behavior
Accomplishment of overall goal
 Target behavior defined in smaller
operant units
 linked together in chain of activities
 Can focus on weakest links first
 divide it into smaller behavioral units
 Basic skills  integrated whole
 avoid coaches’ trap
 salsa dancing ~

Behavioral Definitions: Advantages
Establishes performance level
 For target behavior
 B reward
 No B  no reward
 Helps create rules to solve problems
 if goals not being met
 is a different approach needed? ~

Functional Analysis
Identify controlling (maintaining) variables
 Antecedents
 Consequences
 Hypotheses on role of behavior
D : B  SR)
 ABC model (S
 Used to create behavioral interventions
 reduce unwanted behaviors
 while encouraging desirable one ~

Functional Analysis
Antecedents
 promote target behavior
 inhibit target behavior
 Behavior
 desired / undesired
 other behaviors
 Consequences
 promote target behavior
 inhibit target behavior

Functional Analysis: Example
Self-injurious behavior (SIB)
 Iwata et al
 Antecedent
 parents attention directed elsewhere
 Behavior
 SIB
 Consequence
 attention directed towards child
 Operant phenomena? ~

Functional Analysis: Example
Antecedent
 Tell child to eat stewed tomatoes
 Behavior
 SIB
 Consequence
 demand withdrawn
 Operant phenomena? ~

Functional Analysis: Purpose
Identify relationship: A & C to B
 Context (A)/ Outcome (C) of Behavior
 Key: how does SR change B ?
  B = reinforcement
  B = punishment
 NOT that it appears appetitive/aversive ~

Intervention/Treatment
Change controlling variables   or  B
 Antecedents
 Consequences
  behavioral deficits
 Preparation, reminders
 Reinforcement
  behavioral excesses
 Punishment or extinction
 Reinforce competing responses ~

The Dead Person Rule
When  behavioral excesses
 “Never ask someone to do
something a dead person can do”
 Don’t ask them not to behave
 Punishment & extinction
 Promote competing response
 Fills behavioral void
 Alternate way to reach goal ~

Evaluation




Multiple evaluations of process
 Is desired change occurring?
Monitor data
 ABC diary, graphs
 More to come
Re-assess treatment (controlling variables)
 Change antecedents?
 Change consequences?
Evaluate again ~