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I. Essential Knolwedge 3.B.1: Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to cell specialization. A. Both DNA regulatory sequences, regulatory genes, and small regulatory RNAs are involved in gene expression. 1. DNA contains regulatory sequences that interact with regulatory proteins to control gene expression. Explain the role of the following sequences of DNA: a) Promoter b) Terminator c) Enhancer 2. Regulatory genes code for regulatory proteins or RNA which help to control gene expression. Explain the role of the following proteins and RNA: a) Histone acetylation b) DNA methylation c) Alternative RNA splicing d) Protein processing and degredation e) Effects of MicroRNAs and Small Interfering RNAs on mRNA B. Both positive and negative control mechanisms regulate gene expression in bacteria and viruses. 1. Explain negative control over gene expression exhibited by repressible operons. 2. Explain negative control over gene expression exhibited by inducible operons. 3. Explain positive control over gene expression. C. In eukaryotes, gene expression is complex and control involves regulatory genes, regulatory elements and transcription factors that act in concert. Explain the regulation of transcription inititiation. Be sure to mention control elements, enhancers, and cell type-specific transcription. II. Essential Knowledge 3.B.2: A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression. A. Signal transmission within and between cells mediate gene expression. 1. Explain how levels of cAMP regulate metabolic gene expression in bacteria. B. Signal transmission within and between cells mediates cell function. 1. Explain how cytoplasmic determinants and induction can stimulate cell differentiation and development. 2. Explain how changes in p53 activity can result in cancer. 3. Explain the role of homeotic genes in development.