... – Transcription factors (major)
• Activators bind to enhancers
• DNA bends to allow interaction of enhancer with promoter
so RNA polymerase can bind
– 1 promoter per gene
MTC19: transcription and gene expression 02/10/07
... Genes consist of exons (sequences to be subsequently translated into proteins) separated by introns,
which can contain other control regions or even other genes to allow more complex control networks
Gene promoters define both the starting point and the direction of transcription
Promoter regions ar ...
PowerPoint Presentation - No Slide Title
... This regulation can occur at any of the
steps in gene expression. Regulation of
transcription is most common,
important examples of each type of
Key concepts_Regulation of transcription in Bacteria
... Key concepts Regulation of Transcription in Bacteria
Within a bacterial cell, the expression of some genes is regulated to respond to environmental changes.
Other constitutive or housekeeping genes are transcribed uniformly to maintain cellular functions.
Regulation may occur in many ways: the most ...
... Partially based on slides by Metsada Pasmanik-Chor
... some enhancers can work by increasing the probability that a gene is in a
permissive environment for transcription (putative accessible chromatin).
b. Much evidence has implicated enzymes such as histone acetyl transferases (HATs,
e.g. protein complexes containing Gcn5p + Ada2 in yeast, PCAF + P300/ ...
The molecular basis of epigenetics involves modifications to DNA and histone proteins
that associate with the regulation of gene expression but that do not result from
mutation or changes to the DNA sequence. The four core histone proteins are subject to
post-translational modifications, su ...
Control of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
... Gene expression is transcription of DNA to make RNA and then using the RNA to make proteins. This
process can’t be left on indefinitely. The turning on and off of genes is critical to the development of an
organism and the organism functioning properly throughout its life.
MSc / BSc positions in Systems Biology of Gene Regulation
... What defines the identity of a cell? How is the same genetic code used to build
more than 200 different cell types with distinct physiological and morphological
properties? These fundamental questions drive our enthusiasm for
understanding how information processing is regulated at the level of chro ...
Genetic Controls in Eukaryotes
... Regulation at post-transcriptional level
- RNA processing
o Alternative RNA splicing = different segments of RNA are
treated as exons and introns = different mRNA
o Controlled by regulatory proteins specific to each cell type
o Consequence = a single gene can code for more than one
polypeptide = ...
LOYOLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS), CHENNAI – 600 034
... 4. Define DNA methylation.
5. List out the functions of UTRs.
6. What are Tumour suppressor genes? Give examples.
7. What are non -viral retro-transposons?
8. What is the importance of HMG proteins in nucleosome organization?
9. Define Transcription attenuation.
10. Comment on RNA life span.
Study Guide MBMB 451A Fall 2002
... and IIH. What are TAFs and are they important for basal transcription.
7. What is an enhancer? What is a response element?
8. Describe two models for how an enhancer could effect the level of
9. What are the transcription factors called that are used by Pol I and Pol III?
10. Discuss ...
24 October - web.biosci.utexas.edu
... discussion sections or on next Monday's class no later than 12:00PM. Email
attachments and late delivery are not acceptable.
1. What factors ensure the fidelity of replication during DNA synthesis?
2. Define “promoter” and discuss the common features of bacterial promoters.
3. Describe functions of ...
A CAAT–Box Binding Factor Gene That Regulates Seed Development
... •Transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding
factors proteins. They promote or block transcription by
controlling the recruitment of RNA polymerase
•Transcription is initiated at regions of DNA called promoters.
Specific sequences of nucleotide bases at a promoter are
recognized by both ...
Nuclear gene expression 1
... 1. Enhancers stimulate transcription, while
– Flip 180 degrees, still work
3. Position-independent (mostly)
– Can work at a distance from promoter core
– Enhancers have been found all over
4. Bind regulatory transcription factors
... Promoter and Module Analysis
Statistics for Systems Biology
... average are needed per amino acid in a mature protein), there is a real premium placed on
the efficient production of proteins. Thus, the cell carefully decides which protein to
produce and how much of that protein to produce. At the level of RNA production, this
means that the genes being transcrib ...
... Both enhancers and silencers affect transcription rate.
Each has unique DNA sequence for the binding of
Enhancer sequences contain multiple binding sites for
trans-acting regulatory proteins.
Enhancers could be located upstream from the
promoter, downstream from the gene, or eve ...
Ch 15 - .Gene Regulation
... 2** – Transcriptional control –
[transcription factors- proteins
that initiate RNA pol. binding]
once a gene is unpackaged it
will be transcribed. (transposons
shut down genes by interrupting
code, gene jumping, also
Regulation of Gene Expression
... – Remember that a promoter is where RNA polymerase
binds to DNA to begin transcription
– Occurs in prokaryotic genomes
DNA Function II - Complete Vocab with
... General Transcription Factors: Other enzymes/proteins that are required for RNA Polymerase to function
Transcription Activators: Proteins that bind to enhancers to stimulate transcription
Transcription Repressors: Proteins that bind to enhancers to shut down transcription
Enhancer: A sequence of DNA ...
In molecular biology and genetics, transcriptional regulation is the means by which a cell regulates the conversion of DNA to RNA (transcription), thereby orchestrating gene activity. A single gene can be regulated in a range of ways, from altering the number of copies of RNA that are transcribed, to the temporal control of when the gene is transcribed. This control allows the cell or organism to respond to a variety of intra- and extracellular signals and thus mount a response. Some examples of this include producing the mRNA that encode enzymes to adapt to a change in a food source, producing the gene products involved in cell cycle specific activities, and producing the gene products responsible for cellular differentiation in higher eukaryotes.The regulation of transcription is a vital process in all living organisms. It is orchestrated by transcription factors and other proteins working in concert to finely tune the amount of RNA being produced through a variety of mechanisms. Prokaryotic organisms and eukaryotic organisms have very different strategies of accomplishing control over transcription, but some important features remain conserved between the two. Most importantly is the idea of combinatorial control, which is that any given gene is likely controlled by a specific combination of factors to control transcription. In a hypothetical example, the factors A and B might regulate a distinct set of genes from the combination of factors A and C. This combinatorial nature extends to complexes of far more than two proteins, and allows a very small subset (less than 10%) of the genome to control the transcriptional program of the entire cell.