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Transcript
Nucleic Acids and Genetics
A
Adenine
B
Title: ______________________________
C
1. Known information about this molecule
E
D
Guanine
http://www.ageds.iastate.edu/meat/images/dna2.gif
II. RNA – describe RNA
Location? Function? Letters and code?
Label DNA diagram – A-F see web site
Name the RNA used in transcription.
Name the RNA used in translation.
III. Protein synthesis: Going from DNA to Protein
Transcription - mRNA will leave the nucleus and travel to the ribosomes
where proteins are assembled. The ribosome reads the mRNA strand in sets
of three bases (codons). These codons code for amino acids (the building
blocks of proteins).
Translation - use the chart to match the mRNA codon to the amino acid for
the protein. Transfer RNA (tRNA) carries the amino acid to the mRNA on
the ribosome and matches bases.
Practice: “U” replaces “T” in RNA
Using the Genetic Code Chart, determine the amino acid sequence of the
protein for which this DNA sequence codes. 1st) transcribe DNA into mRNA
and 2nd) translate the mRNA into the amino acid sequence.
DNA: TAC GCC CTG TGG ATG CGC CTC CTG CCC CTG ATC
mRNA: ____________________________________________________
amino
acids:______________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
Protein synthesis begins with DNA in the nucleus. Below is a DNA sequence that
codes for part of a molecule of oxytocin. Oxytocin is the pituitary hormone that helps
regulate blood pressure. It also stimulates the uterus to contract during childbirth and
stimulates the production of milk after childbirth.
Write the sequence of messenger RNA (mRNA) codons that would result from the
transcription of this portion of DNA
ACA ATA TAG CTT TTG ACG GGG AAC CCC ATT
mRNA: UGU UAU AUC GAA AAC UGC CCC UUG GGG
_____________________________________________________________
UAA
A. Use the table on the previous page to translate the mRNA code into a
sequence of amino acids in this part of the oxytocin molecule.
Cys; tyro; iso; glut; asparagine; cys; pro; leu; gly; stop
___________________________________________________________________
How many amino acids make up this part of the oxytocin molecule? _____________
B. Let’s do this in REVERSE! What is the DNA that codes for this mRNA
sequence?
CUA UAC CCC AUA UCA GCG GAU
GAT ATG GGG TAT AGT CGC CTA
DNA:_______________________________________________________________
Fill in the chart:
Amino Acid Sequence
Valine, leucine, cystine
mRNA
GUG CUU UGU
DNA
CAC GAA ACA
Can there be more than one DNA code?___________
Explain:______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
AUG CGG GAC ACC UAC GCG GAG GAC GGG GAC UAG
meth;arg;asp;threo;tyro;alan;glut;asp;glycine;asp; stop
What happens when a mistake occurs in DNA?
A mutation is a change that occurs in the DNA sequence of a gene. A change in the
DNA sequence may result in a major change in the amino acid sequence of the
protein for which the DNA codes.
SEE NEXT PAGE
Trans Weird Word Chart for mRNA codons (This is make-believe!)
UAG = Stop (period)
AUG = Initiator (Start)
ACG = funny . . .
ACA = breath . . .
AGC = best . . .
AUA = rocks
AAA = my
ACU = butterfly. . .
..
CCC = Biology
CAA = old
CAC = rubber
CAG = breaks
CUA = I
CUC = LIKE
CUG = roll
CUU = music
...
GAG = puppies. . .
GAC = demented . .
GCA = ooops.. .
GGG = future . . . .
GUC = dress . . .
GUA = a . . .
UCG = YOU
UGC = your
UUU = life
.
Use the Trans Weird Word chart to make a sentence from
DNA: TAC GGG TAT ACG AAA ATC
...
mRNA.
(Original DNA strand)
AUG CCC AUA UGC UUU UAG
Biology rocks your life.
mRNA: _______________________________________________
Sentence: ___________________________________________________
Substition: Two bases been changed in the DNA sequence.
DNA: TAC GGG TAT ACG GAG ATC (mutated DNA strand)
AUG CCC AUA UGC CUC UAG
Biology rocks your LIKE.
mRNA: ____________________________________________________
Sentence:__________________________________________________
Insertion: Several bases have been added.
DNA: TAC AGC CAG GAG CAT CUG TGA CGT (mutated DNA strand)
AUG UCG GUC CUC GUA GAC ACU GCA
You dress like a demented butterfly ooops
mRNA: ______________________________________________________
Sentence: ___________________________________________________