Evolution Unit Study Guide Define evolution: What is catastrophism and who developed this idea? What did Hutton & Lyell say about how Earth formed? What did Lamarck contribute to Darwin’s theory? Who else came up with a theory of evolution around the time when Darwin proposed his own? What is different between artificial selection and natural selection? How can natural selection lead to evolution? What does it mean to be biologically “fit”? What are homologous structures and how do several different organisms acquire such structures? How does convergent evolution NOT involve homologous structures? What are vestigial structures? List out a few things that are considered evidence for evolution: Evolutionary trees are _____________________ about the relationships among different groups. What is biogeography and how did it help Darwin to explain his theory using endemic species? ****Natural selection acts on individuals, but only populations evolve**** What is MICROEVOLUTION? How do you find Average Heterozygosity? What is a cline? What is the ultimate source of variation? How else can genetic variation occur within a population? What conditions must be met for a population to be in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium? Breakdown the HW equation and explain what each of the symbols represent. p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 & p+q=1 What are the two examples of genetic drift? When is genetic drift more likely to alter the allele frequencies in a population? What is gene flow? How does it alter the allele frequencies in a population? What are the different modes of selection and how are they different? Directional: Disruptive: Stabilizing: Intersexual Selection: Intrasexual Selection: Both types of sexual selection can lead to sexual dimorphisms…what is that? What are some things that help maintain genetic variation in populations? What is MACROEVOLUTION? What are the different things that can lead to reproductive isolation… Prezygotic Postzygotic What does it mean to be reproductively isolated? What is the difference between allopatric and sympatric speciation? What did the Miller-Urey experiment prove? What is a protobiont? What is believed to be the first genetic information of life? What organisms are thought to have supplied oxygen to the early atmosphere? How is it thought that eukaryotes came about? What supposedly cleared the path to allow for mammals to evolve freely?