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Evolution Test Topics (Chapter 13 and parts of 14)
Influences on Darwin
o Lamarck’s contribution to evolutionary theory.
 Why doesn’t natural selection result in “perfect” organisms?
 Why aren’t acquired traits passed on?
o Malthus and Lyell
o Observations while aboard the Beagle
Explain Darwin’s theory for evolution.
o What is the process called?
o Explain how the process works – How does it lead to populations adapting to the environment?
o Be able to describe his main points:
 Struggle for existence
 Survival of the fittest
 Give the biological definition of fitness
 What does the phrase “survival of the fittest” mean?
 How does the meaning of “fittest” and “fitness” differ?
 Descent with modification
o Importance of genetic variation
 What is the primary source of most genetic variation in a population?
 Contribution of sexual reproduction to evolution
o Why do populations adapt/evolve and not individual organisms?
Evidence of evolution – be able to explain how the following relate to and support Darwin’s theory
o Fossil record
o Embryology/development
o Comparative anatomy (homologous structures)
o Molecular biology
o Geographic distribution of species (Pangea)
o Artificial selection v. Natural selection.
Relate pesticide resistance in insects & antibiotic resistance in bacteria to natural selection.
o How does misuse of antibiotics affect evolution of disease-causing bacteria like tuberucolosis (PBS video
Influence of genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, and natural selection on allele frequency in a gene pool.
o Bottle neck effect & founder effect
Genetic equilibrium – What is it? What conditions must be met for it to occur? (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium)
Be able to calculating genotype frequencies, allele frequencies, and use the Hardy-Weinberg equation to
determine whether a population is evolving.
Evolution in polygenic v. single-gene traits
o Stabilizing v. directional v. disruptive selection.
o Intrasexual v. Intersexual selection
Distinguish between microevolution and macroevolution. (14.1)
Define a biological species (14.2)
o List types of reproductive barriers between species.
o Contribution of geographic isolation and adaptive radiation to species diversity.
Convergent v. Divergent evolution.
o Homologous v. analogous structures
o Opportunities that set the stage for adaptive radiation.
Punctuated equilibrium model v. gradualism