... (1842–1915). He missed the deadline, however,
because of illness. Around this time Schmalhausen
became acquainted with the founder of the
Russian school of evolutionary morphology, Alexej
N. Sewertzoff (1866–1936), who in the same year
(1902) took up a Chair in Zoology in Kiev. This
coincidence was ...
... on the faith that nothing happens without a cause and that every cause has an
effect’. This applies to human intentionality as well as everything else. Contrary
to widespread belief, causal explanation does not mean that intentions are
ignored in Darwinism; it simply means that they are caused, and ...
... disputed topics in biology and the philosophy of biology. In this regard I appear to
have come closer to the academic mainstream; yet even more daring claims are made
in this book. For my ideas challenging Darwinian metaphysics, and in particular
Darwinian process-monism, are still innovative, rough ...
... Beetles were dissected in phosphate-buffered saline and their
sperm harvested from the seminal vesicles. The sperm were dried
on a subbed microscope slide, fixed, and DNA stained (Hoechst’s
or DAPI). To confirm the presence or absence of conjugation,
sperm found in the female sperm-storage organs we ...
... susceptibility to crowding. The transmission rate of infection,
the recovery rate, and the virulence are denoted by b, g, and
a, respectively. All parameters are assumed to be positive.
We assume virulence (a) is determined by the parasite
within-host replication rate («). In the wild-type host that ...
... 25. Primates have a(n) ____________________ thumb that allows them to reach and grasp. (opposable or fifth)
26. ____________________ were humanlike primates who walked upright on two legs and ate plants and animals.
(Hominids or Chimps)
27. The earliest known hominid is _________________________. (A ...
... …. ‘I opened Majerus’s book anticipating a bashing for Kettlewell. ….From twenty years of
reading anti-pollution literature, as well as advocacy of non-mainstream science views, I think
I can pretty often see the attack coming in the form of qualifying with “supposed evidence”,
etc. and confrontatio ...
... constraints is to look at the phylogenetic distribution of characters (see ‘‘Constraints in a phylogenetic context’’ below). For example, Eberhard
(2001, 2002) examined male sepsid flies and found
that they have evolved moveable abdominal lobes,
at least twice independently, in response to sexual
... These disputes lie beyond the scope of this philosophical-methodological paper. In addition, these “cultural
wars” are only partially philosophical in their origins and have led to a huge number of publications, many of
them frequently laden with ideological claims.
... “standard evolutionary theory” that assumes that the selection
pressures imposed by the environment are unaffected by the
evolutionary response to that selection (Odling-Smee et al. 2003;
Laland and Sterelny 2006).
However, there is substantial disagreement as to whether
the evolutionary role of ada ...
... Observations on Zanclus cornutus were performed
by LORENZ in his big reef tank in Altenberg (Northwest of Vienna) on 760 days, mainly in the afternoons, from April 1976 to September 1980.
LORENZ’s manuscript covers April 1976 to August
1977. The 1978 experimental introductions of new
fish were repor ...
... new concepts that constitute a whole new way of thinking about the world. This revolutionary
Weltanschauung is not “limited to evolution and the consequences of evolutionary thinking”,
but has “wide-reaching importance also outside of biology”: “Almost every component in
modern human’s belief system ...
... of all vertebrates (Shigetani et al. 2005).
The lampreys also lack some of the characteristic
gene expression patterns observed in the gnathostomes, which may be associated with the absence of
the apomorphic characters that define the gnathostomes. For example, the Hox code in the head region
of the ...
... organisms throughout their life, traditionally the subject of many physiological studies, has remained underexploited in evolutionary biology. Phenotypic flexibility,
the reversible within-individual variation, is a function
of environmental conditions varying predictably (e.g.
with season), or of m ...
... When relatedness is low, cooperative behaviours are vulnerable to exploitation by cheats that do not contribute to
collective action but still benefit from the cooperative behaviours of others . Cheats can proliferate under these
conditions because the benefits of cooperation are shared
... Erasmus Darwin proposed that all warm-blooded animals could have descended from a single microorganism
(or “ﬁlament”). The ﬁrst full-ﬂedged evolutionary
scheme was Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's “transmutation”
theory of 1809, which envisaged spontaneous generation continually producing simple form ...
... called “behaviorism”, instinct psychology started to be criticized by many for being too
metaphysical to be a scientific account of human agency (Asso and Fiorito 2004). Initiated in
1913 with a series of lectures given by John B. Watson at Columbia University, the
behaviorist approach put the “emph ...
... Editor: Vishal Shah, Dowling College, United States of America
Received September 19, 2013; Accepted March 9, 2014; Published April 1, 2014
Copyright: ß 2014 Fujita et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
... activity that synthesizes already existing elements according to known laws. This would
correspond to the aspect of directionality. However, if a work of art were completely
directional it would be too predictable. Art must also involve essentially unpredictable
activity that while conforming to mec ...
... approximation to the actual process of biological evolution, Chaitin points
to the second one. Scenarios a) and c) are rejected, but for diﬀerent reasons.
The ﬁrst one does not convey evolutionary processes well enough, since
creating a descendant with a higher ﬁtness would last too long and would n ...
... colleagues to quit meddling in science, while they themselves belittled religious beliefs and values. At times Hodge worried that
science, devoid of religion, was becoming downright “satanic.”
He had no doubt that religion was in a “ﬁght for its life against
a large class of scientiﬁc men.”6
The spr ...
... publisher, but not without the aid and persistence of several of her colleagues. The theory that
she described in her ﬁrst book is now included in high-school and college biology textbooks.
But the more extreme reading of symbiogenesis is still a point of controversy. For example, in Symbiotic Plane ...
The status of creation and evolution in public education has been the subject of substantial debate and conflict in legal, political, and religious circles. Globally, there is a wide variety of views on the topic; in some countries legislation forbids teachers to discuss either the evidence for evolution or the modern evolutionary synthesis, the explanatory scientific theory of evolution. In other countries legislation mandates that only evolutionary biology is to be taught in the appropriate scientific syllabuses.