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Structure and Function of the
Structure of Mitochondria
• Organelle with two membranes
• Found in both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
• In humans all of your mitochondria come
from your mother
• Have their own DNA
Structure is a double membrane with many
folds on the inner membrane
Function of the Mitochondria
• “Powerhouse of the
• Convert chemical
energy stored in food
into forms that the cell
can use
• Site of cellular
Cellular Respiration
• C6H12O6 + 6O2
• 6CO2 + 6H2O
• Memorize this formula
• In words: The bonds in
Sugar are broken apart.
Energy is released and
Carbon Dioxide and water
are given off as waste
• The energy released is
not directly usable by
the cell.
• It is used to convert
ADP (Adenosine
Diphosphate) to ATP
• When ATP releases
the phosphate energy
is released that the cell
can use
Endosymbiotic Hypothesis
• Symbionts live
together in a situation
in which both benefit
• They also divide just
like bacteria
• Get this –
mitochondria have
their own DNA and
• Sooo – it could be that
mitochondria are
bacteria that invaded
eukaryotic cells.
• Both would benefit
All of your
DNA came
from your