Download File - Serrano High School AP Biology

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

List of types of proteins wikipedia, lookup

Chemical synapse wikipedia, lookup

Mitosis wikipedia, lookup

Cytokinesis wikipedia, lookup

Extracellular matrix wikipedia, lookup

Organ-on-a-chip wikipedia, lookup

Endomembrane system wikipedia, lookup

Cell growth wikipedia, lookup

Cell cycle wikipedia, lookup

Signal transduction wikipedia, lookup

Cytosol wikipedia, lookup

SULF1 wikipedia, lookup

G protein–coupled receptor wikipedia, lookup

Cell membrane wikipedia, lookup

Cytoplasmic streaming wikipedia, lookup

Myocyte wikipedia, lookup

Growth hormone wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Animal Form & Function
Physiology
AP & Pre-AP Biology
Serrano High School
Nerve Impulse Transmission
Resting potential
 More negative inside cell than outside




Why?
Large negatively charged proteins & nucleic
acids
Na+/K+ pumps maintain high [Na+] outside
cell and high [K+] inside cell
Nerve Impulse Transmission
Resting potential
 Membrane potential = -70 mV

Nerve Impulse Transmission
Depolarization
 Stimulus causes Na+ gates to open
 Na+ rushes into cell

Nerve Impulse Transmission
Repolarization
 Na+ gates close
& K+ gates open
 K+ rushes out of
cell
 High [Na+] inside
cell
 High [K+]
outside cell

Nerve Impulse Transmission
Hyperpolarization
 K+ gates slow to close
 More K+ moved out
than necessary

Nerve Impulse Transmission
Refractory
period
 Na+/K+ pumps
move




Na+ out of cell
K+ into cell
Restores resting
potential
distribution of
Na+ and K+
Transmission Across a Synapse
Synapse
 Gap between neurons

Transmission Across a Synapse

Stimulus reaches synaptic end bulb
Transmission Across a Synapse
Ca2+ gates open
 Ca2+ enters end bulb

Transmission Across a Synapse

Vesicles with neurotransmitter
migrate to presynaptic membrane
Transmission Across a Synapse

Vesicle fuses with presynaptic
membrane
Transmission Across a Synapse

Neurotransmitter released into
synaptic cleft
Transmission Across a Synapse

Neurotransmitter diffuses across
cleft
Transmission Across a Synapse

Neurotransmitter binds to receptor
protein
Transmission Across a Synapse

Postsynpatic neuron depolarizes
Muscle Contraction

Sliding filament model
Muscle Contraction
Sliding filament model
 Depolarization of muscle causes
sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca2+

Muscle Contraction
Sliding filament model
 Ca2+ exposes binding sites on actin
 Myosin heads bind to actin
 Cross bridges form

Muscle Contraction
Sliding filament model
 Myosin heads lose ADP + P
 Myosin heads change shape
 Actin pulled toward center of sarcomere
 Muscle contracts

Muscle Contraction
Sliding filament model
 ATP binds to myosin heads
 Cross bridges break
 Muscle relaxes

Muscle Contraction

Sliding filament model
Steroid Hormone

Steroid hormone
enters cell
Steroid Hormone
Steroid hormone
enters cell
 Binds to receptor

Steroid Hormone
Steroid hormone
enters cell
 Binds to receptor
 Hormonereceptor complex
enters nucleus
 Causes
transcription

DNA transcribed
RNA translated
Protein Hormone

Protein hormone
too big to enter cell
Protein Hormone
Protein hormone
too big to enter cell
 Binds to receptor

Protein Hormone
Protein hormone
too big to enter cell
 Binds to receptor
 Activates enzyme

Protein Hormone
Protein hormone
too big to enter cell
 Binds to receptor
 Activates enzyme
 Enzyme used to
make cyclic AMP

Protein Hormone
Protein hormone
too big to enter cell
 Binds to receptor
 Activates enzyme
 Enzyme used to
make cyclic AMP
 Cyclic AMP
targets cell
responses

Kidney
Filtration
 Formation of
filtrate
 Waste, nutrients,
water, ions,
proteins move
from the blood
into the Bowman’s
capsule

Kidney
Reabsorpton
 Nutrients, ions, &
water move from
filtrate back into
blood

Kidney
Secretion
 Ions & wastes
more from the
blood into the
filtrate

Kidney
Bowman’s capsule
 Filtrate production
 Blood pressure forces
small solutes, water &
ions from blood into
capusule

Kidney
Proximal convoluted
tubule
 Reabsorption of water,
ions, and all organic
nutrients

Kidney
Loop of Henle
 Descending limb
 Water reabsorbed
 Wall permeable to water
but not solutes

Kidney
Loop of Henle
 Ascending limb
 Wall impermeable to
water and solutes
 Cells actively pump Na+
and Cl- out of tubular
fluid

Kidney
Distal convoluted
tubule
 Secretion of ions, acids,
drugs, toxins
 Variable reabsorption of
water and Na+

Kidney
Collecting duct
 Variable reabsorption of
water and ions
 Variable secretion of
water and ions
 Balancing act homeostasis
