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The Key to Cellular Transport
Characteristics of the Cell Membrane
Made of phospholipids
– arranged in two layers called a bilayer
Selectively permeable
-it controls “selects” what can enter or leave the cell
-some materials are allowed through others aren’t
Fluid Mosaic Model
- made of different molecules – phospholipids, proteins,
- the molecules aren’t static but can move “fluid”
Lipid bi-layer – the heart of the
Phospholipids are arranged into 2 layers
- called a bilayer
Phospholipids: Phosphate Heads
Polar/hydrophillic – attracted to water and
charged particles
Phospholipids: Lipid Tails
Nonpolar/hydrophobic – repel water and charged
Found in bilayer – helps to hold the membrane together
while adding to fluidity of the membrane
Proteins with carbohydrates attached – identifies the cell type
-allows it to bind with other cells of the same type
Receptor Proteins
recognize and bind with substances outside of the cell,
causing changes inside the cell
Allow reactions to occur- light reactions and ETS occur with
enzymes in membrane
Transport Proteins
Proteins that extend across the membrane – provide a way for
large or charged molecules to cross the membrane
Types of Transport Proteins
Ion Channels- allow certain charged particles to cross the
membrane – passive transport
Carrier Proteins – bind to a specific molecule and carry it
across the membrane
- facilitated diffusion – proteins carry molecules with the
concentration gradient /no cellular energy is required
- active transport – proteins carry molecules against the
concentration gradient/ cellular energy is required