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Transcript
Transport
Chapter 5
How does stuff get in and out of a cell
through the cell membrane?
How do molecules move?
All molecules will move automatically
from a region of ______
HIGH concentration
to a region of ______concentration.
LOW
DIFFUSION
_______________
DIFFUSION
Molecules will keep moving until the
concentration is EQUAL everywhere
= __________________________
EQUILIBRIUM
What if the HIGH and LOW
places are on different sides of a
cell membrane?
Molecules will still
go from HIGH
to LOW if the
cell membrane
will let them
through!
Some molecules can just pass
right through the bilayer using
DIFFUSION
oxygen, carbon dioxide
EXAMPLE: ___________________
OSMOSIS
• When water molecules
move across membrane
from HIGH to LOW it
is called
OSMOSIS
___________________
Cell Membrane
Controls what enters & leaves the cell
Only certain kinds
of molecules can
go across
SELECTIVELY
= ______________
PERMEABLE
(Semi-permeable)
PROBLEM WITH CELLS
What if a cell needs a
molecule that can’t pass
through the cell membrane
easily?
Not all molecules can pass
through easily
Need a way to move molecules
across that can’t go by
DIFFUSION
Carrier Proteins
___________________________
INTEGRAL PROTEINS that
help molecules go across
Vesicles
___________________________
Small membrane sacs that
carry molecules
2 KINDS of TRANSPORT
• ______________
PASSIVE
TRANSPORT
Does NOT require energy
ACTIVE
• _____________
TRANSPORT
Requires energy
CARRIER PROTEINS
PERIPHERAL
INTEGRAL
VESICLES
CARRIER PROTEINS
FACILITATED DIFFUSION
FACILITATED DIFFUSION
PASSIVE (No energy needed)
HIGHER TO LOWER
CARRIER PROTEINS
GRAB & FLIP IT ACROSS
GLUCOSE
EXAMPLE: _________________
ION CHANNEL
ION CHANNELS
• PASSIVE (No energy needed)
• HIGHER TO LOWER
• CARRIER PROTEINS MAKE
A PASSAGEWAY
• Examples in cells:
_______________________
Na+ , Cl- , Ca + + , K +
PROBLEM WITH CELLS
What if cell needs to move from
LOW to HIGH?
What if cell needs to move it fast
and not wait?
ENERGY IF YOU
NEED TO ADD __________
WANT A MOLECULE TO MOVE IN
THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION IT
NATURALLY GOES!
What organelle supplies
the energy?
+
Na
and K
+
PUMP
SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP
• ACTIVE (Uses energy)
• USES CARRIER PROTEIN
• Special just for Na+ and K + ions
• Examples in cells:
3 Na+ are pumped out of cells at
same time 2 K + are taken into cells
VESICLES
ENDOCYTOSIS
Brings substances into cell
• ACTIVE
• VESICLES CARRY MOLECULES
INTO CELL
– Fluid, molecules = Pinocytosis
– large particles or whole cells =
Phagocytosis
• Examples in cells:
– one celled organisms eat this way
– white blood cells destroy bacteria this way
Endocytosis
EXOCYTOSIS
Substances are released outside of cell
• ACTIVE
• VESICLES CARRY &
RELEASE MOLECULES
• Examples in cells:
–GOLGI BODIES release
packaged proteins
Exocytosis
INSIDE CELL
OUTSIDE CELL
Endocytosis & Exocytosis
http://grossmont.gcccd.cc.ca.us/cmilgrim/Bio120/Outline/
Outline2.gif/TransportMedia/EndoExocytosisMovie.htm
PASSIVE TRANSPORT
• Diffusion
• Osmosis
• Facilitated Diffusion
• Ion Channels
DIFFUSION
WITHOUT a membrane
•
•
•
•
•
PASSIVE
HIGH TO LOW
NO CARRIER PROTEINS
NO VESICLES
ANY MOLECULES BUT WATER
DIFFUSION
ACROSS a membrane
•
•
•
•
•
PASSIVE
HIGH TO LOW
NO CARRIER PROTEINS
NO VESICLES
ANY MOLECULES BUT WATER
OSMOSIS
•
•
•
•
•
PASSIVE
HIGH TO LOW
NO CARRIER PROTEINS
NO VESICLES
FOR WATER MOLECULES
FACILITATED
DIFFUSION
• PASSIVE
• HIGH TO LOW
• USES CARRIER PROTEINS
ION CHANNELS
•
•
•
•
•
PASSIVE
HIGH TO LOW
NO VESICLES
USES CARRIER PROTEINS
FOR IONS
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
•Na+-K+ Pump
•Exocytosis
•Endocytosis
Pinocytosis
Phagocytosis
SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP
• ACTIVE
• USES CARRIER PROTEIN
• Special just for Na+ and K + ions
EXOCYTOSIS & ENDOCYTOSIS
• ACTIVE (Need energy)
• USES VESICLES
PASSIVE
TRANSPORT
•
•
•
•
Diffusion
Osmosis
Facilitated Diffusion
Ion Channels
ACTIVE
TRANSPORT
•Na+-K+ Pump
•Exocytosis
•Endocytosis
Pinocytosis
Phagocytosis
THE END
OSMOSIS
OSMOSIS
ISOTONIC:
EQUALS
Concentration outside cell ____________
concentration inside cell
Water entering = water leaving
STAYS THE SAME SIZE
so cell _____________________
OSMOSIS
HYPERTONIC: Concentration outside cell is
____________________
GREATER THAN inside cell
More water leaves cell than enters
so cell shrinks ______________________
= PLASMOLYSIS
OSMOSIS
HYPOTONIC:
Concentration outside cell is
________________
LESS THAN inside the cell
More water enters than leaves cell so cell
expands and can burst ___________________
= CYTOLYSIS
Animal cells
Plant cells
IS IT ISO, HYPO, HYPER?
Named for LIQUID concentration
NOT cell concentration
More solute
OUTSIDE
than inside cell
Cell will shrink
(PLASMOLYSIS)
HYPERTONIC
LESS solute
OUTSIDE
than inside cell
Cell will swell
& burst
(CYTOLYSIS)
HYPOTONIC
EQUAL inside
and outside
Cell stays the
same size
ISOTONIC
Really THE END