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Applications of Biological Network
Presented and Created By :
Harshit Bhatt
• Introduction
• Human Diseases and Genes Network
• Cellular Structure and Functionality
• Conclusion
• Reference
• The main aspect of applying network in the medical field was to get
the knowledge about the biological genes that are related to a variety
of disorders and diseases in human body.
• With help of network, researchers have tried to develop a
relationship among the various diseases and the human genes
responsible for that.
• Mapping this network could help to target certain genes to cure
various diseases in once in the human body.
• Deep research on this network lead researchers to conclude that few
genes are common genetic origin of various diseases.
The Human Disease and Genes Network
• This network gives an overview of the relationship
between the human disorders and genes
responsible for it.
• The human disease network(HDN) is a complete
network of the all known human disorders
(phenome) which are related to each other with
the common genes that are responsible for their
• The disease gene network(DGN) is a complete
network of all human genes responsible for
diseases and are related to each other if they are
associated with a common disorder.
• Here we have the complete HDN and DGN network
with disease and genes class separately
distinguishable from each other.
• In the HDN we could see Deafness as the largest
node due to the highest number(41) of genes
involved with it whereas Colon Cancer and Breast
Cancer with the highest Betweenness centrality due
to large common number of genes involved in the
cancer related diseases.
• Whereas in the DGN the genes are clustered in
accordance to their relation with the diseases (light
green cluster for cancer) and their size in
accordance to the number of disorders they are
connected to.
• It was concluded with this network that genes are
more likely linked to genes in the same disorder
class. Hence local factoring accounts for most
Characterizing the Disease Modules
• Number of observed physical interactions between the products of genes(proteins)
within the same disorder (red arrow) and the distribution of the expected number of
interactions for the random control (blue).
• Distribution of the tissue-homogeneity of a disorder (red). Random control (blue)
with the same number of genes chosen randomly is shown for comparison.
Cellular Network and its Functional Properties
• The interaction inside the cellular structure and its functionalities
was a major point of research in this study.
• They proposed that disease related proteins have a high tendency to
make hubs as they interact mostly with other proteins in the body as
compare to the non-disease genes proteins.
• The disease genes also choose those proteins which are highly
connected(interacting) to the other proteins (hubs) which leads to
the quick acquisition of diseases in human body.
• The results here prove the affinity of the disease
genes to the hub proteins and the interaction of
genes with others.
• Fig(a) shows us a tendency of all disease genes to
form hubs, where we could see the tendency for
disease genes to encode proteins with hubs.
• Fig(c) shows the same relationship but with only
essential disease genes where the tendency is
much higher to encode hub proteins.
• Fig(d) gives the relationship for non-essential
disease genes to encode hubs which is much lower.
• Fig(e) and (f) shows the genes coordination within
the cell for essential and non-essential disease
genes respectively.
• The final study concluded that there are very few disease
genes(22%) that are essential which correspond to majority
of the disorders of human body as they interact with
majority of other genes in a cell which defines cell
• Genes within same disorder class are more related to each
other than if the network is randomized.
• The human disease network
Kwang-Il Goh*†‡§, Michael E. Cusick†‡¶, David Valle, Barton Childs, Marc
Vidal†‡¶**, and Albert-La´ szlo´ Baraba´ si*†‡**
*Center for Complex Network Research and Department of Physics, University of
Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556; †Center for Cancer Systems Biology
(CCSB) and ¶Department of Cancer Biology, Dana–Farber Cancer Institute, 44
Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115; ‡Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical
School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115; §Department of Physics, Korea
University, Seoul 136-713, Korea; and Department of Pediatrics and the
McKusick–Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School
of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205