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Biological Energetics: Metabolism
Fig. 6.15
• Enzyme speed reactions by lowering EA.
– The transition state can then be reached even at
moderate temperatures.
• Enzymes do not change ΔG.
– It hastens reactions that would occur eventually.
– Because enzymes
are so selective,
they determine
which chemical
processes will
occur at any time.
Fig. 6.13
• Reactions in closed systems eventually reach
equilibrium and can do no work.
• A cell that has reached metabolic equilibrium
has a ΔG = 0 and is dead!
• Metabolic disequilibrium is one of the defining
features of life.
Fig. 6.7a
• Cells maintain disequilibrium because they are
open with a constant flow of material in and
out of the cell.
• A cell continues to do work throughout its life.
Fig. 6.7b
• A catabolic process in a cell releases free
energy in a series of reactions, not in a single
• Some reversible reactions of respiration are
constantly “pulled” in one direction as the
product of one reaction does not accumulate,
but becomes the reactant in the next step.
Fig. 6.7c
Outer Membrane
Intermembrane Space
Inner Membrane
Thylakoid Membrane
Thylakoid Space