Download Biology Chapter 11- Gene Expression Miss Ventrone

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Transcript
Biology
Chapter 11- Gene Expression
Name__________________________
Miss Ventrone
Period___________
I. Role of Gene Expression
Gene expression is the activation (“_______________”) of a gene
◦
Digestion of milk
◦
Separation of fingers and toes
Genome: _________________ ________________ ______________ contained in an individual
Prokaryotes
Discovered in the early 1960’s by Francois __________ and Jacques _____________
They were studying how __________ ______________ the _______________ of sugar lactose
(found in milk) in _________________
Absence of Lactose
Regulator genes code for _______________ proteins which ___________ a gene from being
_________________
Presence of Lactose
 Lactose binds to the repressor protein _____________ it to ________________ and
allowing _______ __________________ to begin transcription producing mRNA
Eukaryotes
 Much more ______________ than prokaryotes
 _________________________
 Contain genetic information within the ________________
Structure of Eukaryotic Genes
 ____________________ site of _______________ ___________________ in DNA and
RNA
**Some portions remain ____________________ coiled in ______________________-these
genes can ____________ be transcribed**
 Introns- ___________________ but NOT ____________________
 ____________- BOTH ___________________ and ___________________
Control after Transcription
 Pre-mRNA
◦
Intron
Exon
Intron
Exon
Pre-mRNA
Contains both __________ and __________
Exon after splicing
◦ Exon ________ occurs turning pre-mRNA into mRNA
II. Gene Expression in Development
 Cell Differentiation – cells have ___________ jobs within the cell
◦
Muscle cells-_____________ _________ _____________
◦
___________ ___________ cells-carry oxygen
◦
Liver Cells-__________ ________ _______
◦
_____________________- development of __________________ in an organism
Homeotic Genes
 Determine where _________________ ______________ develop during morphogenesis
◦
Anntennapedia-______________ occurring in this gene that makes a ______
grow where an _____________ should be
Cells are __________________ switching genes on and off
 DNA chip- used for _____________ _____________ ______________________
◦
Fragments are ____________ with a fluorescent compound which lights up
when that __________ is turned ____________
III. Cancer
 Cancer- __________________ growth of cells that _____________ other parts of the
body
 Proto-oncogenes- _______________ cell growth and division
◦
Mutations change a ______-________________ into an _________________
 Oncogene- ___________ cell division and over expression of proteins at the wrong time
Tumors
 Tumor- _________________ ________________________ of cells
◦
Benign- growth that ______________ ______________
◦
Malignant-__________ and destroys tissues at __________ places within the
body-- ___________________
Causes of cancer
 Carcinogen-any substance that ____________ cancer (ex. ____________,
____________, UV rays, viruses)
◦
Mutagens- agents that cause mutations to occur within a cell
Kinds of Cancer



Carcinomas – grow in tissues lining ___________
Sarcomas – grow in bone and ____________ tissues
Lymphomas-___________ solid tumors growing in the lymphatic system