Review for Final Exam Spring Semester 1. What is the study of heredity called? 2. Who is considered the father of genetics? 3. What is a gene that is fully expressed when 2 different alleles are present called? 4. What is a gene that is not fully expressed when 2 different alleles are present called? 5. What is a gene pair in which the 2 alleles are different called? 6. What is a gene pair in which the 2 alleles are the same called? 7. Be able to use a Punnett square to determine genotypes, phenotypes, and ratios. 8. What is a photograph of all of an organism’s chromosomes called? 9. What is failure of the chromosomes to separate during cell division called? 10. What is it called when a zygote has only one copy of a particular chromosome? 11. What is it called when a zygote has three copies of a particular chromosome? 12. A change in the DNA sequence is called a _________________________. 13. What is a point mutation? Silent mutation? Frameshift mutation? 14. Gene mutations: Name the following gene mutations; the normal strand is listed 1st and the mutation is listed 2nd. ACAGTCAGTC ACAGTCAGATC ________________________ ACAGTCAGTC ACGTCAGTC ________________________ ACAGTCAGTC ACAGTCCGTC ________________________ ACAGTCAGTC ACACATGCAGGTCAGTC ________________________ 15. Define cancer. 16. How are DNA fingerprints used to solve crimes? 17. Define evolution. 18. What are the four parts of the theory of Natural Selection. 19. What are homologous structures? Analogous structures? 20. Be able to recognize drawings of the 5 types of evolution. 21. Be able to recognize graphs for the 3 types of selection. 22. What is taxonomy? 23. What are the different taxa, in order, in the classification system you learned about in class? 24. Be able to use a cladogram to determine evolutionary relationships. 25. Be able to use a taxonomic key. 26. Be able to label drawings of a taproot and a fibrous root. 27. Name and describe the plant responses discussed in class. 28. Compare and contrast xylem and phloem. 29. What are gymnosperms? Angiosperms? 30. Be able to label the parts of a flower: stamen, anther, filament, pistil, style, stigma, ovary, petals, and sepals. 31. Be able to fill out the comparing kingdoms table for all 6 kingdoms. 32. Know the functions of all 12 organ systems. Also, be able to recognize drawings of the systems. Nervous System__________________________________________________ Respiratory System_______________________________________________ Digestive System_________________________________________________ Immune System__________________________________________________ Cardiovascular System____________________________________________ Skeletal System__________________________________________________ Muscular System_________________________________________________ Reproductive System______________________________________________ Integumentary System_____________________________________________ Excretory System_________________________________________________ Endocrine System________________________________________________ Lymphatic System________________________________________________ 33. Be able to label the following structures in drawings of the pig: trachea, stomach, small intestine, liver, gallbladder, kidney, testes, ovaries, ureter, bladder. 34. What are biotic and abiotic factors? Give 3 examples of each. 35. What are organisms that can make their own food called? What is another name for them? 36. What are organisms that can’t make their own food called? What is another name for them? 37. Name and describe the 5 types of heterotrophs. 38. Name and describe the 3 types of community interactions discussed in class. 39. Name and describe the 3 types of symbiotic relationships. 40. What are the 3 types of ecological pyramids?