Download DNA Study Guide 1. The sides of a DNA molecule are made up of

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DNA Study Guide
1. The sides of a DNA molecule are made up of sugar molecules alternating with __________________molecules.
2. The order of bases along a gene determines the order in which ______________________ are put together to
form a ____________________.
3. What forms a genetic code? __________________________________________________________________
4. The genetic code is found in the order of nitrogen ____________________ along a gene.
5. During DNA replication, adenine (A) always pairs with _____________________________________________.
6. What letters would form the other stand on the DNA helix: ATCGGTTCA _______________________________
7. Proteins are made up of smaller molecules called ____________________________________.
8. ___________________ is single-stranded.
9. Where does protein synthesis take place? _________________________________________________________
10. What does messenger RNA do during protein synthesis? _____________________________________________
11. Which nitrogen base is in RNA, but not DNA? ________________________________
12. During protein synthesis, the protein continues to grow until _________________________________________.
Identify structure A. ___________________________________________________
Identify structure D. ___________________________________________________
15. What are the three nitrogen bases in tRNA that pair with bases A-G-U in mRNA? ________________________
16. What is a mutation? __________________________________________________________________________
17. How can a mutation affecting skin be harmful to an animal? __________________________________________
18. How many different types of cancer are there? ___________________
19. Cancer is a disease in which cells grow and divide _________________________________________.
20. Scientists think cancer begins when a ______________________________ occurs in the DNA.
21. Cancer can spread when cells break off a tumor and are carried through the body by the ___________________.
22. What is a cancer tumor? _______________________________________________________________________
23. The most common treatments for cancer include drugs, surgery, and _________________________________.
24. What is chemotherapy? ________________________________________________________________________
25. What are multiple alleles? ______________________________________________________________________
26. What trait is controlled by a gene with multiple alleles? ______________________________________________
27. Why does height have such a wide variety of phenotypes? ___________________________________________
28. Human eyes come in a variety of colors. Explain why eye color is not likely controlled by a single gene. ________
29. What combination of sex chromosomes results in a male human being? ________________
30. Sex-linked genes are genes on the __________ and ____________ chromosomes.
31. Why are sex-linked traits more common in males than females? _______________________________________
32. Is it possible for a son to inherit an allele on an X chromosome from his father? Explain. ___________________
33. What is a carrier? _____________________________________________________________________________
34. What must occur for a girl to be colorblind? _______________________________________________________
35. Complete a Punnett square showing a cross between a colorblind father (XcY) and a carrier mother (XCXc).
Remember that colorblindness is controlled by a recessive sex-linked allele.
36. What percentage of male children are likely to be colorblind? _____________
37. In _________________________, organisms with desired traits are chosen to be parents of the next generation.
38. Crossing a potato that tastes good with one that resists disease is an example of _________________________.
39. Cloning results in two organisms that are _________________________________________________________.
40. What is an example of the benefits of genetic engineering? ___________________________________________