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NAME__________________________________________DATE_______________ Chapter 22-26 Key Concepts AP BIG IDEA 1 EVOLUTION/ SB5 Descent with Modification Chapter 22 Guided Reading Notes and the MUST SEE Bozeman videos #1 Natural Selection, #2 Examples of Natural Selection and #4 Evidence for evolution Concept 22.1: The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species 1. Define evolution: 2. Darwin studied fossils and saw that some organisms appeared while others disappeared and used that as support for evolution. How did the following two principles vary from that of Darwin’s? a. Catastrophism b. Uniformitarianism 3. How did Lamarck approach the idea of inherited traits? Explain. Concept 22.2: Descent with modification by natural selection explains the adaptations of organisms and the unity and diversity of life. 4. Define: a. Adaptation b. Natural selection c. Descent with modification d. Artificial selection 5. Summarize Darwin’s observations and inferences (page 458). 6. Summarize natural selection into three main points (page 459). Concept 22.3: Evolution is supported by an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence 7. Explain how color pattern in guppies supports the idea of natural selection. 8. Summarize how pathogens become resistant to drugs. What impact does that have on humans and disease treatment? 9. How do fossils provide support for evolution? 10. What is homology? a. Define homologous structures b. Define vestigial structures c. Describe convergent evolution 11. Biogeogeography – what is meant by this type of evidence? How does is support the theory of evolution? Testing your Knowledge. Self Quiz. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 8. The Evolution of Populations Chapter 23 Guided Reading Notes and the MUST SEE Bozeman videos #3 Genetic Drift and #9 Evolution Continues Supplemental videos - Solving Hardy-Weinberg problems, Hardy-Weinberg Punnett Square Concept 23.1: Mutation and sexual reproduction produce the genetic variation that makes evolution possible 1. Explain the variation within a population in terms of discrete and quantitative characters as well as average heterozygosity. 2. Explain the variation between populations in terms of geographic variation. 3. What is the main source of new genes? 4. How do mutation rates vary among different organisms? 5. How does sexual reproduction impact genetic variation? Concept 23.2: The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to test whether a population is evolving 6. Describe the Hardy-Weinberg principle 7. Describe what is meant by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium 8. Write the equation for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and label each variable. 9. Describe the 5 conditions to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? a. No mutation b. Random mating c. No natural selection d. Extremely large population size e. No gene flow 10. How is the Hardy-Weinberg principle applied to PKU? Concept 23.3: Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow can alter allele frequencies in a population 11. Explain what genetic drift means 12. Explain what genetic drift means in terms of a. The founder effect b. The bottleneck effect 13. What are the four key points that can summarize genetic drift (page 478). 14. What is meant by the term “gene flow”? Concept 23.4: Natural selection is the only mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution 15. Be able to explain and identify examples of the following terms: Terms Description Relative fitness Directional selection Disruptive selection Stabilizing selection Sexual selection (dimorphisms, inter and intrasexual selection) Diploidy Heterozygote advantage Frequency dependent selection Neutral variation 16. What are the four major constraints to evolution of a perfect organism? Testing your Knowledge. Self Quiz. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 7. Example or Graph Illustration The Origin of Species Chapter 24 Guided Reading Notes and the MUST SEE Bozeman video #8 Speciation Concept 24.1: The biological species concept emphasizes reproduction isolation 1. Define: a. Speciation b. Macroevolution c. Microevolution 2. Explain what reproduction isolation is in terms of Prezygotic barriers Postzygotic barriers in the following table. Reproductive Barriers Prezygotic Barriers – impede mating or fertilization if mating does occur Postzygotic Barriers – prevent hybrid zygotes to be fertile adults Types of Barriers Habitat Isolation Reduced Hybrid Viability Temporal Isolation Behavioral Isolation Mechanism Isolation Gamete Isolation Description of Barrier Example 3. Explain other definitions of a species a. Morphological species b. Ecological species c. Phylogenetic species Concept 24.2: Speciation can take place with or without geographic separation 4. What is allopatric speciation? a. What is the process for this type of speciation? b. What is the evidence that supports this type of speciation? 5. What is sympatric speciation? a. Explain polyploidy in terms of speciation b. Explain how sympatric speciation can occur as a result of i. Habitat differentiation ii. Sexual selection Concept 24.3: Hybrid zones provide opportunities to study factors that cause reproductive isolation 6. What is a hybrid zone and how can these areas impact gene flow and speciation? Concept 24.4: Speciation can occur rapidly or slowly and can result from changes in few or many genes 7. What is punctuated equilibria? 8. How can speciation differ between types of organisms? 9. What can affect the rate of speciation? 10. How can speciation lead to macroevolution? Testing your Knowledge. Self Quiz. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 8. Reduced Hybrid Fertility Hybrid Breakdown The History of Life on Earth Chapter 25 Guided Reading Notes and the MUST SEE Bozeman videos #10 Abiogenesis and #11 The origin of life – scientific evidence Supplemental video – Stickleback evolution Concept 25.1: Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible 1. Summarize the experiments and significance of the experiments done by Miller and Urey. 2. What are protobionts? 3. What are ribozymes? Concept 25.2: The fossil record documents the history of life 4. Explain how fossils are dated by radiometric dating and analyzing the half-life of isotopes. 5. Know that fossils provide are a great representation of how groups of organisms change over time. Concept 25.3: Key events in life’s history include the origins of single celled and multi-celled organisms and the colonization of land 6. What are stromatolites? 7. What is the “oxygen revolution” and what impacts did it have on life? 8. Explain the endosymbiosis theory. 9. What occurred during the Cambrian explosion? 10. How did organisms start to colonize land? Concept 25.4: The rise and fall of dominant groups reflect continental drift, mass extinctions and adaptive radiation 11. What are the consequences of continental drift? 12. Have a general idea about the 5 mass extinctions. How they occurred and what the consequences are. 13. What are adaptive radiations? a. Compare and contrast worldwide to regional adaptive radiation, providing examples. Concept 25.5: Major changes in body form can result from changes in the sequences and regulation of developmental genes 14. Define heterochrony 15. Understand the general function of homeatic genes. 16. How do changes in genes and gene regulation impact organism? Use the stickleback as an example. Concept 25.6: Evolution is not goal oriented 17. Explain the evolution of the eye. 18. Explain evolutionary trends, as seen in the branched pattern of horses. Testing your Knowledge. Self Quiz. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 9. 10. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Guided Reading Notes and the MUST SEE Bozeman video #6 Phylogenetics Concept 26.1: Phylogenies show evolutionary relationships 1. Review taxonomy, binomial nomenclature and the hierarchical classification system. 2. Review what phylogenetic trees are, what they indicate and how they are used. 3. Be able to answer the 26.1 checkpoint question #3. Concept 26.2: Phylogenies are inferred from morphological and molecular data 4. What are analogous structures? 5. How and why do scientists differentiate between the two types of characteristics? 6. What is molecular systematics, how is it used and why is it important? Concept 26.3: Shared characters are used to construct phylogenetic trees 7. What is cladistics? 8. Know the following terms: clade, monophyletic, paraphyletic, polyphyletic 9. Distinguish between a shared ancestral character and a shred derived character. 10. What does the branch length on a phylogenetic tree indicate? 11. How is DNA used to predict/determine what a phylogenetic tree looks like? 12. Why and how are phylogenetic trees used as hypothesizes? Concept 26.4: An organism’s evolutionary history is documented in its genome 13. How are genes and proteins used to document evolutionary change and evolutionary relationships? Concept 26.5: Molecular clocks help track evolutionary time 14. Explain the concept of a molecular clock. 15. What, if any, are limitations to the molecular clock concept? 16. Summarize the application of a molecular clock to determine the origin of HIV. Concept 26.6: New information continues to revise our understanding of the tree of life 17. How and why the tree of life been revised? Testing your Knowledge. Self Quiz. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 9.