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Charles Darwin proposed that evolution by natural selection was the basis for the
differences that he saw in similar organisms as he traveled and collected
specimens in South America and on the Galapagos islands.
A. Explain the theory of evolution by natural selection as presented by
B. Each of the following relates to an aspect of evolution by natural
selection. Explain THREE of the following
i. Convergent evolution and the similarities among species
(ecological equivalents) in a particular biome (e.g., tundra, taiga,
ii. Natural selection and the formation of insecticide-resistant
iii. Speciation and isolation
iv. Natural selection and behavior such as kinesis, fixed-action
pattern, dominance hierarchy, etc…
v. Natural selection and heterozygote advantage
Describe the process of speciation. Include in your discussion the factors that
may contribute to the maintenance of genetic isolation.
Describe the modern theory of evolution and discuss how it is supported by
evidence from two of the following three areas:
a. Population genetics
b. Molecular biology
c. Comparative anatomy and embryology
Biologists are interested in preserving the diversity of living organisms on the
A. Explain THREE of the following processes or phenomena, using an
appropriate example for each.
i. Mutation
ii. Adaptive radiation
iii. Polyploidy
iv. Population bottlenecks
v. Growth of the human populations
B. For each process or phenomena you selected above, discuss its impact on the
diversity of life on Earth.