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• Biology Honors
• By Gail Mayes
• Foothill High School
Biology Honors Objectives
The Theory of Evolution
Click on Tortoise for Intro
• A. The process by which modern
organisms have descended from ancient
1. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) sailed
on the HMS Beagle to the Galapagos
2. This voyage sparked a curiosity
about how organisms came to be different
and survive on each of the islands.
Darwin’s Journey
Darwin’s Studies
• A. Studied to find out why species change
over time.
Malthus stated that human populations tend to
grow faster than Earth’s food supply.
Individuals struggle to compete in changing
Compete for food and space
Escape from predators
Find mates
Locate shelter
Natural Selection
Evidence for Evolution
• A. “Adaptation”=Species survived because
they were better able to adapt to their
• Mole rats that live underground their
whole lives are blind. They have adapted
to their environment.
Can you find the katydid?
Lizard Adaptations
• Lizards have adapted to their environment
over time. Click on the lizard to find out
Mimicry- An adaptation
that enables one
species to resemble
Camouflage- Species blend with their environment. They
can’t be easily seen by predators.
Find out more about snakes:
Click on the octopus to find out how
long they have survived through
Vestigial structures- A
body structure in a
present-day organism
that no longer serves
its original purpose,
but was probably
useful to an ancestor.
(blind fish in the dark
deep sea).
Population Genetics and Evolution
A. How can a population’s genes change over time?
1. Gene pool- All of the alleles of the
population’s genes together on one pool.
2. Allelic frequency- The percentage of any
specific allele in the gene pool.
3. Genetic equilibrium- Alleles remain over
a. If a population is in equilibrium it is not
b. Mutations results in favorable changes in a
Hardy Weinberg Video
Evolution of Species
• A. Speciation- The evolution of new
species is called speciation.
– 1. Occurs when members of a similar
populations no longer interbreed to produce
fertile offspring within their natural
• Convergent Evolution- Evolution in which
distantly related organisms evolve similar
• Different species can look alike:
Evolution Quiz Link
• Evolution is a theory. There is evidence
that evolution has occurred. Speciation
occurs at a much quicker time scale and is
evident in bacterial mutations.