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Name: Evolution Review Sheet [17.5 points] Section 1 Charles Darwin and Other Scientists 1) Darwin’s ship is named the Beagle 2) Darwin stopped at _the Galapagos Islands on his trip around the world and made many of his observations. 3) Darwin noticed the finches from different islands had different shaped beaks because they had adapted to different environments. 4) After his trip, Darwin concluded the finches came from a common ancestor. 5) Hutton and _Lyell studied geology and determined the Earth was millions of years old. 6) Lamarck believed organisms acquired traits through use or disuse and passed them to offspring. 7) Darwin’s book is called On the Origin of Species. 8) What is artificial selection? - Humans breed animals for certain traits. humans select the organisms that will breed and reproduce offspring. 9) How is artificial selection different than natural selection? Natural = environment “selects” organisms to survive and reproduce Artificial = humans “select” organisms to survive and reproduce Section 2-3 Natural Selection, Evidence for Evolution 10) What does variation mean? - individual differences 11) Name one variation between the two tigers. - tiger two has a larger snout 12) What is another phrase for natural selection? - survival of the fittest 13) What is an adaptation? - inherited characteristic that makes an organism more likely to survive and reproduce 14) Explain an adaptation that a bird might have to help it reach a food source. = long beak, reach behind bark 15) Explain how camouflage can be an adaptation. - blend into environment, make it less visible to predators 16) Where or how does an organism get an adaptation? - adaptations are inherited 17) What does it mean for an animal to be “fit” or have a high fitness? - high ability to survive and reproduce in a given environment 18) Before the industrial revolution, why were the grey peppered moths considered more “fit?” - grey blended in to their environment better, so they were less visible to predators and more able to survive and reproduce 19) What does evolution mean? - change in allele frequency over time Name: 20) What is the name of the process or “mechanism” that carries out evolution? - natural selection 21) Can an individual organism evolve in its own lifetime? Why? - no- evolution is the change in allele frequencies of POPULATION over GENERATIONS 22) Can a species evolve generation to generation? Why? - yes, if allele frequencies change even slightly 23) Explain Darwin’s idea of descent with modification. - natural selection produces organisms with different structures and habitats all living things are related to each other 24) Natural selection has 4 parts: explain all four! There is variation in a population some variations are favorable not all offspring can survive each generation the individuals that survive are those with favorable variations for that environment 25) Why is the fossil record considered evidence for evolution? it provides evidence of what organisms were like in earlier life 26) What is a homologous structure? Give an example. structures similar between organisms because they share a common ancestor structures with different mature forms that came from similar tissues ex- limbs of frog and bat 27) What is a vestigial structure? Give an example. structure that no longer has a use but was probably useful to an ancestor ex- pelvic bone in a whale 28) How does embryology provide evidence for evolution? embryo are similar in the earliest stages of development suggest that organisms share a common ancestor 29) What type of evidence did Darwin not have for evolution that we have today? Biochemistry- DNA shows how closely related organisms are the more closely their genes match, the more closely organisms are related 30) In the natural selection spoons game, what did the limited number of spoons each round represent? - competition, the struggle for existence 31) In the spoons game, what represented genetic variation? - the different cards with traits each person received (inherited) Section 4 Genes & Variation 32) What 2 major gaps existed in Darwin’s theory of evolution? - Didn’t know how traits were passed on - No idea how variations appeared 33) What scientist’s work was able to fill these gaps? 34) Mendel variation is the differences among organisms in a population Name: 35) relative frequency is the number of times and allele appears in a population 36) gene pool is all the different alleles that are in a population 37) population is a group of the same species that can breed and produce fertile offspring 38) In genetic terms, what is evolution? a change in allele frequencies over time 39) What are two sources of variation? mutation, gene shuffling 40) What is a mutation? any change in the DNA sequence 41) What causes mutations? An error in replication, or outside influences such as radiation, or chemicals 42) When does gene shuffling happen (2) times: crossing over, independent assortment, 50% DNA from each parent 43) Does natural selection work on the genotype or phenotype? phenotype Section 5 Evolution as Genetic Change 44) Where is the area of high fitness in directional selection? one end of the curve 45) Where is the area of high fitness in stabilizing selection? the middle of the curve 46) Where is the area of high fitness in disruptive selection? the extreme ends of the curve 47) An average weight baby is the most likely to survive. This is 48) Longer bird beaks gather food better. This is stabilizing selection. directional selection. 49) Both small and large bird beaks are well adapted to survive. This is disruptive 50) What type of selection can result in 2 new subgroups? 51) What type of selection favors the average individual? disruptive selection. stabilizing 52) What type of selection favors one extreme trait over the middle and other end? directional 53) Label each graph disruptive, directional, or stabilizing selection. Then draw the curve for the new graph! directional stabilizing 54) In what size of a population is genetic drift observed? 55) What is genetic drift? small a random change in allele frequency 56) What can cause genetic drift? 57) disruptive bottleneck effect, founder effect Explain an example of genetic drift. - Small Amish population had a higher rate of dwarfism and 6 fingers because they only reproduce with a small population - Many cheetahs were killed so the remaining cheetahs have very little genetic variation among them Name: 58) Bottleneck effect is when a large part of a population is killed or cannot reproduce 59) Give an example of the bottleneck effect. a natural disaster kills a large portion of the population 60) What is the founder effect? a type of genetic drift in which a small portion of the population breaks off and forms a new population someplace else 61) What is genetic equilibrium? allelic frequencies do not change 62) What 5 things are required for genetic equilibrium to happen in a population? random mating no mutation no natural selection selection no movement into or out of the population very large population Section 6 Speciation 63) What is speciation? _evolution of a new species 64) What is reproductive isolation? formerly interbreeding organisms can no longer mate and produce fertile offspring 65) What happens in geographic isolation? physical barrier separates a population 66) What types of things can cause geographic isolation? 67) What is behavioral isolation? patterns lava, rivers, rocks organisms don’t mate because of different behaviors or mating eastern and western meadowlarks won’t mate because they have different songs to attract mates 68) Give an example of behavioral isolation. 69) What is temporal isolation? species reproduce at different times 70) Give an example of temporal isolation. different days orchid who live in same place but release pollen on Name: Evolution Vocabulary Terms and Concepts 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) HMS Beagle Galapagos Islands Darwin Evolution Hutton and Lyell Lamarck Acquired traits On the Origin of Species 9) Natural Selection 10) Survival of the fittest 11) Artificial Selection 12) Adaptation 13) Fitness 14) Struggle for existence 15) descent with modification 16) common descent 17) fossils 18) transitional forms 19) comparative anatomy 20) homologous structures 21) vestigial organs 22) embryo 23) analogous structures 24) biochemical evidence 25) Biological diversity 26) variation 27) camouflage 28) mimicry 29) gene shuffling 30) mutation 31) directional selection 32) stabilizing selection 33) disruptive selection 34) population 35) gene pool 36) species 37) genetic equilibrium 38) genetic drift 39) bottleneck effect 40) founder effect 41) relative frequency 42) reproductive isolation 43) geographic isolation 44) temporal isolation 45) behavioral isolation Who is Darwin, what did he do, and why does it matter? Darwin, HMS Beagle, Galapagos Islands, Natural Selection, Common Descent What is selection (natural and artificial) and why is it important? Natural Selection, Variation, Fitness, Adaptation, Descent with Modification, Environment, Artificial Selection What are the different lines of evidence for evolution and what do they mean? Evolution, Fossil Record, Comparative Anatomy [embryology, homologous, analogous, vestigial], Biochemical Evidence, Radiometric Dating Evidence Explain the four basic mechanisms of evolution and use an example of how they would affect a certain population. Mutation, Migration, Genetic Drift, Natural Selection, Variation How does genetics factor into evolution? Evolution as a change in allele frequency. Genetics explains sources of variety such as camouflage or mimicry, within species, coming from gene shuffling and mutations, and these beneficial genetic variations are passed down through natural selection. How does natural selection affect allele frequency? Natural selection can either be directional (pushing one direction towards greater fitness), stabilizing, (removing variety to increase populations fitness), or disruptive (separating towards two species with greater fitness in their own niche). This can be graphed and measured with respect to allele frequency. What is speciation? Species are a population that can interbreed with one another. If this population experiences reproductive isolation (geographical, behavioral, temporal) and the mechanisms for evolution are all present, then the population can split into multiple different species.