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Evolution Review Sheet [17.5 points]
Section 1 Charles Darwin and Other Scientists
1) Darwin’s ship is named the Beagle
2) Darwin stopped at _the Galapagos Islands on his trip around the world and made many of his observations.
3) Darwin noticed the finches from different islands had different shaped beaks because they had adapted
to different environments.
4) After his trip, Darwin concluded the finches came from a common ancestor.
5) Hutton and _Lyell studied geology and determined the Earth was millions of years old.
6) Lamarck believed organisms acquired traits through use or disuse and passed them to offspring.
7) Darwin’s book is called On the Origin of Species.
8) What is artificial selection?
- Humans breed animals for certain traits. humans select the organisms that will breed and reproduce
9) How is artificial selection different than natural selection?
Natural = environment “selects” organisms to survive and reproduce
Artificial = humans “select” organisms to survive and reproduce
Section 2-3 Natural Selection, Evidence for Evolution
10) What does variation mean?
- individual differences
11) Name one variation between the two tigers.
- tiger two has a larger snout
12) What is another phrase for natural selection?
- survival of the fittest
13) What is an adaptation?
- inherited characteristic that makes an organism more likely to survive and reproduce
14) Explain an adaptation that a bird might have to help it reach a food source.
= long beak, reach behind bark
15) Explain how camouflage can be an adaptation.
- blend into environment, make it less visible to predators
16) Where or how does an organism get an adaptation?
- adaptations are inherited
17) What does it mean for an animal to be “fit” or have a high fitness?
- high ability to survive and reproduce in a given environment
18) Before the industrial revolution, why were the grey peppered moths considered more “fit?”
- grey blended in to their environment better, so they were less visible to predators and more able
to survive and reproduce
19) What does evolution mean?
- change in allele frequency over time
20) What is the name of the process or “mechanism” that carries out evolution?
- natural selection
21) Can an individual organism evolve in its own lifetime? Why?
- no- evolution is the change in allele frequencies of POPULATION over GENERATIONS
22) Can a species evolve generation to generation? Why?
- yes, if allele frequencies change even slightly
23) Explain Darwin’s idea of descent with modification.
- natural selection produces organisms with different structures and habitats
all living things are related to each other
24) Natural selection has 4 parts: explain all four!
There is variation in a population
some variations are favorable
not all offspring can survive each generation
the individuals that survive are those with favorable variations for that environment
25) Why is the fossil record considered evidence for evolution?
it provides evidence of what organisms were like in earlier life
26) What is a homologous structure? Give an example.
structures similar between organisms because they share a common ancestor
structures with different mature forms that came from similar tissues
ex- limbs of frog and bat
27) What is a vestigial structure? Give an example.
structure that no longer has a use but was probably useful to an ancestor
ex- pelvic bone in a whale
28) How does embryology provide evidence for evolution?
embryo are similar in the earliest stages of development
suggest that organisms share a common ancestor
29) What type of evidence did Darwin not have for evolution that we have today?
Biochemistry- DNA shows how closely related organisms are
the more closely their genes match, the more closely organisms are related
30) In the natural selection spoons game, what did the limited number of spoons each round represent?
- competition, the struggle for existence
31) In the spoons game, what represented genetic variation?
- the different cards with traits each person received (inherited)
Section 4 Genes & Variation
32) What 2 major gaps existed in Darwin’s theory of evolution?
- Didn’t know how traits were passed on
- No idea how variations appeared
33) What scientist’s work was able to fill these gaps?
variation is the differences among organisms in a population
35) relative frequency is the number of times and allele appears in a population
gene pool is all the different alleles that are in a population
population is a group of the same species that can breed and produce fertile offspring
38) In genetic terms, what is evolution?
a change in allele frequencies over time
39) What are two sources of variation?
mutation, gene shuffling
40) What is a mutation?
any change in the DNA sequence
41) What causes mutations? An error in replication, or outside influences such as radiation, or chemicals
42) When does gene shuffling happen (2) times:
crossing over, independent assortment, 50% DNA
from each parent
43) Does natural selection work on the genotype or phenotype? phenotype
Section 5 Evolution as Genetic Change
44) Where is the area of high fitness in directional selection?
one end of the curve
45) Where is the area of high fitness in stabilizing selection?
the middle of the curve
46) Where is the area of high fitness in disruptive selection? the extreme ends of the curve
47) An average weight baby is the most likely to survive. This is
48) Longer bird beaks gather food better. This is
stabilizing selection.
directional selection.
49) Both small and large bird beaks are well adapted to survive. This is
50) What type of selection can result in 2 new subgroups?
51) What type of selection favors the average individual?
disruptive selection.
52) What type of selection favors one extreme trait over the middle and other end?
53) Label each graph disruptive, directional, or stabilizing selection. Then draw the curve for the new graph!
54) In what size of a population is genetic drift observed?
55) What is genetic drift?
a random change in allele frequency
56) What can cause genetic drift?
bottleneck effect, founder effect
Explain an example of genetic drift. - Small Amish population had a higher rate of dwarfism and 6 fingers
because they only reproduce with a small population
- Many cheetahs were killed so the remaining cheetahs have very little genetic variation among them
58) Bottleneck effect is when a large part of a population is killed or cannot reproduce
59) Give an example of the bottleneck effect.
a natural disaster kills a large portion of the
60) What is the founder effect?
a type of genetic drift in which a small portion of the population
breaks off and forms a new population someplace else
61) What is genetic equilibrium? allelic
frequencies do not change
62) What 5 things are required for genetic equilibrium to happen in a population?
random mating
no mutation
no natural selection selection
no movement into or out of the population
very large population
Section 6 Speciation
63) What is speciation?
_evolution of a new species
64) What is reproductive isolation?
formerly interbreeding organisms can no longer mate and
produce fertile offspring
65) What happens in geographic isolation?
physical barrier separates a population
66) What types of things can cause geographic isolation?
67) What is behavioral isolation?
lava, rivers, rocks
organisms don’t mate because of different behaviors or mating
eastern and western meadowlarks won’t mate because
they have different songs to attract mates
68) Give an example of behavioral isolation.
69) What is temporal isolation?
species reproduce at different times
70) Give an example of temporal isolation.
different days
orchid who live in same place but release pollen on
Evolution Vocabulary Terms and Concepts
HMS Beagle
Galapagos Islands
Hutton and Lyell
Acquired traits
On the Origin of Species
9) Natural Selection
10) Survival of the fittest
11) Artificial Selection
12) Adaptation
13) Fitness
14) Struggle for existence
15) descent with modification
16) common descent
17) fossils
18) transitional forms
19) comparative anatomy
20) homologous structures
21) vestigial organs
22) embryo
23) analogous structures
24) biochemical evidence
25) Biological diversity
26) variation
27) camouflage
28) mimicry
29) gene shuffling
30) mutation
31) directional selection
32) stabilizing selection
33) disruptive selection
34) population
35) gene pool
36) species
37) genetic equilibrium
38) genetic drift
39) bottleneck effect
40) founder effect
41) relative frequency
42) reproductive isolation
43) geographic isolation
44) temporal isolation
45) behavioral isolation
Who is Darwin, what did he do, and why does it matter?
Darwin, HMS Beagle, Galapagos Islands, Natural Selection, Common Descent
What is selection (natural and artificial) and why is it important?
Natural Selection, Variation, Fitness, Adaptation, Descent with Modification, Environment, Artificial Selection
What are the different lines of evidence for evolution and what do they mean?
Evolution, Fossil Record, Comparative Anatomy [embryology, homologous, analogous, vestigial], Biochemical
Evidence, Radiometric Dating Evidence
Explain the four basic mechanisms of evolution and use an example of how they would affect a certain
Mutation, Migration, Genetic Drift, Natural Selection, Variation
How does genetics factor into evolution?
Evolution as a change in allele frequency. Genetics explains sources of variety such as camouflage or mimicry,
within species, coming from gene shuffling and mutations, and these beneficial genetic variations are passed
down through natural selection.
How does natural selection affect allele frequency?
Natural selection can either be directional (pushing one direction towards greater fitness), stabilizing,
(removing variety to increase populations fitness), or disruptive (separating towards two species with greater
fitness in their own niche). This can be graphed and measured with respect to allele frequency.
What is speciation?
Species are a population that can interbreed with one another. If this population experiences reproductive
isolation (geographical, behavioral, temporal) and the mechanisms for evolution are all present, then the
population can split into multiple different species.