DNA/Protein Synthesis Study Guide Key Terms: nucleotide pyrimidines complementary base pairs histones solenoid kinetochore DNA polymerase gene codon introns exon deoxyribose phosphodiester bonds antiparallel chromatin centromere semiconservative replication DNA ligase transcription frame shift ribosome purines double helix chromosome octamers telomere helicases replication fork translation promoter site anticodon Review Questions: 1. Describe the bond between the sugar and the base in the nucleotide. 2. Describe the bond between the sugar and the phosphate in the nucleotide. 3. Describe the bonds between the complementary bases in the nucleic acid. 4. Which bonds are the strongest and why? 5. Why does complementary bases pairing only occur between A-T and C-G? 6. Draw the general structure of a nucleotide. Which parts are identical in all nucleotides, and which can vary? 7. Name the four types of nitrogen-containing bases found in DNA. 8. Which bases are complementary to each other? How are they held together in the double helix of DNA? 9. Describe the process of DNA replication. 10. How does RNA differ from DNA? 11. What are the three types of RNA? What is the function of each? 12. What is the relationship among the bases in DNA, the codons of mRNA, and the anticodons of tRNA? 13. How is mRNA formed from a eukaryotic gene? 14. Diagram and describe protein synthesis. 15. Distinguish between a nucleoside and a nucleotide. 16. If one strand of DNA has the base sequence AATCCG, what will be the corresponding base sequence of its complementary strand? 17. Describe Meselsohn and Stahl’s experiment. What theory did their results support? 18. During DNA replication, what is the function of: a) helicases, b) DNA binding proteins, c) DNA polymerase, d) DNA ligase? 19. Describe Griffith’s experiment. 20. Describe Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty’s experiment. 21. Describe the distribution of protein and DNA in the T2 bacteriophage. Explain how they can each be labeled. 22. What is the one gene – one polypeptide hypothesis? 23. Explain why the one gene - one polypeptide hypothesis needed to be modified in the light of conditions such as sickle-cell anemia. 24. What is the “central dogma” of biology? 25. What type of bond attaches a new amino acid to a polypeptide chain? By what process does a tRNA molecule attach onto mRNA during translation?