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Transcript
Part 2 of Unit Test 4
Written portion
Directions: Answer the following short answer questions using complete sentences. (5 points each)
Question 1: Nervous systems of animals contain thousands of neurons, all needing to quickly and effectively
communicate with one another to function properly. In four sentences or less, relate the 3 steps of
a signal transduction pathway to the process of neural communication across the synapse from presynaptic neuron to a post-synaptic neuron generating an action potential by describing the general
overall process.
Question 2: The specific immune response has 2 different components, humoral and cell-mediated, that function
together to help clear the body of a pathogen. Each component requires cell-to-cell communication,
either by direct contact or by chemical means, to be activated. In four sentences or less, explain
how your body gets rid of specific pathogens, such as the common cold virus, using lymphocytes
after a macrophage has engulfed a pathogen, broken it down using lysosomes, and put the antigenic
determinant (piece of pathogen) in its MHC 2 “hands” and released IL-1.
Free Response Question: (10 points possible)
Answers must be in essay form. Outline form is not acceptable. Labeled diagrams may be used to
supplement discussion, but in no case will a diagram alone suffice.
An important defense against diseases in vertebrate animals is the ability to eliminate, inactivate, or destroy
foreign substances and organisms. Explain how the immune system achieves THREE of the following:




Provides an immediate nonspecific immune response
Activates T and B cells in response to an infection
Responds to a later exposure to the same infectious agent
Distinguishes self from nonself