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The Immune System
Mucous membranes: moist skin layers that prevent pathogens
(disease causing agents) from entering the body
Leukocytes: White blood cells
 Macrophages: used for short minor invasions
 Phagocytes: used for short minor invasions
 Lymphocytes: used for long term invasions
 In lymph nodes
 T cell and B cell
Antigen: proteins on the outside of a foreign cell saying “Destroy
Antibody: molecules that bind to an antigen and let the
macrophages know to get rid of the foreign body
Inflammatory response: immediate, short-term reaction to a
pathogen; dealt with by phagocytes (trap, consume and destroy)
Immune response: response to a specific pathogen; lock and key
 T-cell: killer, suppressor (yellow light) and helper (regulator)
Main defenders of the immune system
 B-cell: produce and release antibodies
Immune system flow chart:
Mucous membrane → Inflammatory response → Helper T-cells
make killer and suppressor T-cells → killer T-cells puncture cell
membranes of evil cells → B-cells produce antibodies to bind to
antigens and get rid of evil cell
Primary response: caused by initial infection of a pathogen
Secondary response: antibodies produced more quickly due to
Vaccines: injects antigens stripped on disease causing agents,
creates memory without creating disease
Allergy: immune system response to a non-specific pathogen
Histamine: chemical messengers that trigger inflammatory
Autoimmune: immune system attacks itself