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Study Guide for the Immune System Test Chapter 40 1. What are the functions of B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages? 2. What is the difference between an antigen and an antibody? 3. How does acquired immunity work in a natural way (chicken pox) and when a vaccine is used (polio)? 4. What is the difference between a virus cell and a bacteria cell? 5. Which kinds of pathogens are killed by antibiotics? Which are not? 6. How are infectious diseases spread? 7. Describe the body’s first line of defense. 8. The body’s second line of defense is the inflammatory response. Describe two kinds of inflammatory responses. 9. Why is HIV such a tough virus for your immune system to fight? 10. Why does the body try to reject organ transplants?