EK: A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal
... Signal Transmission within and between cells
mediates gene expression
Cytokines and the immune system
Helper T cells release cytokines that stimulate the B and T cells
to undergo proliferation to increase numbers during an
Growth factors released by cells stimulate cell divis ...
... Immune system
Chp. 16 (pp. 323-350)
~20,000 genes affect immunity, usually
polygenic or multifactorial traits
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
... Reaction of immune system = Response
Self & Non-self
Molecules which belong to the body = Self
Antigens which are foreign = Non-self
Immune System Outline 3 - Madison County Schools
... 2. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma - This is a cancer of the lymphocyte white blood cells.(Lymph nodes destroyed.)
3. Stress – This weakens the immune system.
4. HIV/AIDS - This is caused by a retrovirus.
a. Host cell is the T-helper lymphocyte. (It keys in on the CD 4 membrane marker protein.)
II. Plant defense ...
... non-antibody-producing lymphocytes which
are also produced in the bone marrow but
sensitized in the thymus and constitute the
basis of cell-mediated immunity.
Title - Iowa State University
... 6. The second line of defense makes use of many different cell types. Name two cell types
involved in the innate defenses. Name two other non-cellular defenses in the innate
Cell Signalling and communication between cells.
... • Pathogens carry an antigen on its cell surface, they
act as markers, they enable it to be detected by our
body cells, as a ‘foreign cell’. Our own cells also
carry antigens, but they are recognised as ‘self’. In
order to avoid destroying any ‘self’ cells, the
immune system will contain no cells w ...
the original file
... 2. Name 3 different types of barriers (mechanical, chemical, and microbial) that protect us
from pathogens and list the key features for each category.
3. A dendritic cell phagocytoses a gram-negative bacteria. Which PAMP(s) may be
detected? Which innate immune receptor will be detecting the PAMP(s) ...
Chapter 21 - Fundamentals of Microbiology
... c. Distinguish between humoral and cell mediate immunity.
d. Identify the types of T- and B-cell receptors, and assess their importance to antigen
e. Explain how the clonal selection activates only those B and T cells that recognize “nonself”
antigens or epitopes.
f. Discuss the cellula ...
AnS 214 SI Session 5 Sunday, September 13, 8pm A) Antigens and
... 3) What are the three organelles necessary for the extreme rates of protein synthesis found in plasma cells?
4) Write in the names of the antibody killing mechanism corresponding to the description.
_________________ Antibody binds to multiple enemy cells, immobilizing them.
_________________ Antibo ...
Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Therapy: New Insights and
... The existence of multiple non-redundant inhibitory pathways that limit T cell
responses offers novel strategies for mobilizing the immune system to attack cancer
cells. The best characterized of these immune checkpoints is CTLA-4, which inhibits
T cell proliferation by interfering with the interacti ...
... 7. Describe the differences between the antigens that B cell receptors and antibodies recognize, and the antigens
that T cell receptors on cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells recognize.
8. Describe the differences between the humoral immune response and the cell-mediate immune response.
9. Describe ...
Immunity Student Outline
... 2.28 The student is able to use representations or models to analyze quantitatively and
qualitatively the effects of disruptions to dynamic homeostasis in biological systems.
2.29 The student can create representations and models to describe immune responses.
2.30 The students can create representat ...
Immunomics is the study of immune system regulation and response to pathogens using genome-wide approaches. With the rise of genomic and proteomic technologies, scientists have been able to visualize biological networks and infer interrelationships between genes and/or proteins; recently, these technologies have been used to help better understand how the immune system functions and how it is regulated. Two thirds of the genome is active in one or more immune cell types and less than 1% of genes are uniquely expressed in a given type of cell. Therefore, it is critical that the expression patterns of these immune cell types be deciphered in the context of a network, and not as an individual, so that their roles be correctly characterized and related to one another. Defects of the immune system such as autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiency, and malignancies can benefit from genomic insights on pathological processes. For example, analyzing the systematic variation of gene expression can relate these patterns with specific diseases and gene networks important for immune functions.Traditionally, scientists studying the immune system have had to search for antigens on an individual basis and identify the protein sequence of these antigens (“epitopes”) that would stimulate an immune response. This procedure required that antigens be isolated from whole cells, digested into smaller fragments, and tested against T- and B-cells to observe T- and B- cell responses. These classical approaches could only visualize this system as a static condition and required a large amount of time and labor.Immunomics has made this approach easier by its ability to look at the immune system as a whole and characterize it as a dynamic model. It has revealed that some of the immune system’s most distinguishing features are the continuous motility, turnover, and plasticity of its constituent cells. In addition, current genomic technologies, like microarrays, can capture immune system gene expression over time and can trace interactions of microorganisms with cells of the innate immune system. New, proteomic approaches, including T-cell and B-cells-epitope mapping, can also accelerate the pace at which scientists discover antibody-antigen relationships.