... • Reducing lymphocyte proliferation; some also
inhibit aspects of the effector phase.
• The drugs used for immunosuppression can
roughly be divided into agents that-:
Inhibit interleukin-2 (IL-2) production or action,
e.g. Ciclosporin, Tacrolimus; Rapamycin ( also
known as Sirolimus ).
March 24 (PP)
... MHC antigens major cause of rejection
Requires immunosuppression for successful transplants
Cyclosporin A, tacrolimus
interfere with cell signaling
inhibit clonal expansion of T cells
35.3 Notes PP
... Cytotoxic T-cells attack and destroy cancer cells
when they carry an altered protein on their cell
If the cytotoxic T-cells have not been activated,
cytokines might awaken the immune system and
lead to the destruction of cancer
Scientists who are engaged in interleukin
research believe the i ...
... Dr. King
Page 3 of 5
iv. Prevents B and T-cell proliferation
i. Rapidly removed from blood and distributed to muscles, liver, skin and intestines.
ii. Prednisolone is the biologically active preparation, but is converted in the body to other forms.
iii. S ...
History of immunosuppressants
... “Backbone” of most IMS protocols
Similar mechanisms of action
– Differ in structure and receptor interactions
Transplant Proc 2004;36:25S-32S. Am J Kidney Dis 2006;47:S3-21.
What is a drug?
... dosing, substance, or targeted species
• Most current drugs are small molecules, but the fastest
growing group of drugs is biologicals
• Most biologics are immune related
• Most drugs target humans, but some target pathogens
• Most drugs are orally administered
The principle of immunotherapy using dendritic
... The principle of immunotherapy using dendritic cell vaccine: (1) monocytes are isolated
from the peripheral blood and (2,3) manipulated in experimental culture conditions in
order to differentiate and mature into dendritic cells, which are capable of recognizing
and eliminating cancer cells (4).
... Diagram 3: Clonal selection of B cells
in the secondary immune responses
To the principal Azra naheed Medical college Lahore
... cells/tissue components
. Complement activation by Ag /Ab complex
e.g. Transfusion reaction
. Effects of anti receptors Antibodies
e.g. Myasthenia gravis
.Ab dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity
e.g. Graft rejection
2.11.15 - WordPress.com
... Live attenuated vaccines such as those against smallpox or yellow fever are the
most successful vaccines ever made and can confer lifelong memory, whereas
nonliving vaccines induce protection of much shorter duration and require
booster vaccination to maintain protective immunity. Thus, a single do ...
... all mature T lymphocyte and thus used as a T cell marker.
It contributes to antigen recognition, signal transduction
and thus T cell activation. The immunogen recognized by
the antibody used is part of the CD3epsilon chain.
Crystal Structures of Shark Ig New Antigen Receptor Variable
... Sharks are the most primitive animals to have an advanced adaptive immune system. Their
long evolutionary history (~400 million years) is reflected in a diverse array of shark
antibodies, including the unique IgNAR (Ig new antigen receptor) isotype. IgNARs are
heavy chain homodimers, there is no ass ...
Antibodies - blobs.org
... The Fab regions are the fragment antigen-binding regions,
which are the bits which connect to enemy proteins and which
are different in different antibodies.
The Fc region is the fragment crystallisable region, which is the
bit which connects to normal human immune cells, so that
lymphocytes can con ...
Monoclonal Antibodies - The Grange School Blogs
... Points to ponder
• After their first manufacture, monoclonal
antibodies were quickly and widely used in
diagnostic kits such as pregnancy tests.
Suggest why their use in human therapy
has been much slower.
• Discuss how the design of a clinical trial
has to consider both ethical and scientific
Immune System Disorders (Hypersensitivities ≈ Allergies)
... • IgG and IgM antibodies bind to foreign antigens on the
surface of otherwise healthy human blood cell types.
• This results in activation of the complement cascade via
the classic pathway, which leads to cytolysis of blood cells
with the foreign antigen.
• Further antibody and complement C3b bindin ...
The Immune System 2
... 21.21 Where do T cells and B cells develop?
21.22 What are the functions of cell-mediated immunity and antibody
21.23 How do antigens induce an immune response? Use the terms
antigen processing and antigen presentation in your answer.
21.24 What is the normal function of major his ...
Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Therapy: New Insights and
... The existence of multiple non-redundant inhibitory pathways that limit T cell
responses offers novel strategies for mobilizing the immune system to attack cancer
cells. The best characterized of these immune checkpoints is CTLA-4, which inhibits
T cell proliferation by interfering with the interacti ...
Drugs to Treat Autoimmune Diseases
... • Methotrexate
• Immunosuppressive effects due to inhibition of
enzyme involved in the metabolism of folic acid
• Anti-inflammatory effects due to interruption of
• Relatively rapid onset of action (4-6 weeks)
• Side effects
• Oral ulcers
• GI upset
For a list of immunosuppressive drugs, see the transplant rejection page.Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system. They are used in immunosuppressive therapy to: Prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and tissues (e.g., bone marrow, heart, kidney, liver) Treat autoimmune diseases or diseases that are most likely of autoimmune origin (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, Crohn's disease, Behcet's Disease, pemphigus, and ulcerative colitis). Treat some other non-autoimmune inflammatory diseases (e.g., long term allergic asthma control).A common side-effect of many immunosuppressive drugs is immunodeficiency, because the majority of them act non-selectively, resulting in increased susceptibility to infections and decreased cancer immunosurveillance. There are also other side-effects, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, peptic ulcers, lipodystrophy, moon face, liver and kidney injury. The immunosuppressive drugs also interact with other medicines and affect their metabolism and action. Actual or suspected immunosuppressive agents can be evaluated in terms of their effects on lymphocyte subpopulations in tissues using immunohistochemistry.Immunosuppressive drugs can be classified into five groups: glucocorticoids cytostatics antibodies drugs acting on immunophilins other drugs.