The History of Psychology Okay,What’s Psychology again? Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Psychology’s Most Influential People Socrates and Plato 400’s-300’s B.C. thinkers who thought knowledge was innate (born with us). Dualist- mind and body are separate Aristotle 300’s B.C. thinker and data lover who thought knowledge was gained through experience Monist- mind and body are one Psychology in the Middle Ages Abnormal behavior = possession Francis Bacon 1600’s Ideas contributed to the foundation of EMPIRICISM (science should be based on experimentation, experience, data collection, etc.) Rene Descartes 1600’s thinker who believed “animal spirits” were the basis of human learning and movement. Agreed that knowledge was innate John Locke 1600’s philosopher and politician who said the mind was a “blank slate” at birth. Ideas were the basis for empiricism Charles Darwin 1800s scientist/explorer and creator the theories of evolution and natural selection. Nature (innate abilities) vs. Nurture (environmental influences) Wilhelm Wundt 1879: founder of the first psychological laboratory and first experiment (Atoms of the Mind) Edward Titchener 1900‘s Cornell University professor who introduced structuralism: school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind William James 1900‘s Harvard University professor who introduced functionalism: school of psychology that studied how mental and behavioral process allowed for adaptation and survival Taught Mary Calkins (first female president of the APA) Gestalt Psychology Studied how the mind groups objects as organized wholes rather than individual parts Example: Human eyes see an entire image first and then break down individual parts Sigmund Freud Austrian physician who developed psychoanalytic theory that centered on the “unconscious mind” The Behaviorists 1960s idea: It’s all about external observation! Ivan Pavlov (Dogs) John Watson (Little Albert Experiment) B.F. Skinner (Pigeons) The Humanists 1970s school of psychology focusing on healthy human growth potential Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers DO NOW- 1/25/13 1. What is the difference between cognition and behavior? 2. What is empiricism and why is it important? 3. What are the similarities between Charles Darwin and William James? 4. Identify and describe at least 3 major transformations that psychology has experienced since it foundation. Quotes in Psychology Review "The present argument is this: mental life and the world in which it is lived are inventions. They have been invented on the analogy of external behavior occurring under external contingencies. Thinking is behavior. The mistake is in allocating the behavior to the mind.” B.F. Skinner “There is a psychological technique which makes it possible to interpret dreams, and ... if that procedure is employed, every dream reveals itself as a psychical structure which has a meaning and which can be inserted at an assignable point in the mental activities of waking life.” Sigmund Freud “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change.” Charles Darwin “If you plan on being anything less than you are capable of being, you will probably be unhappy all the days of your life.” Abraham Maslow "Let us then suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper void of all characters, without any ideas. How comes it to be furnished? Whence comes it by that vast store which the busy and boundless fancy of man has painted on it with an almost endless variety? Whence has it all the materials of reason and knowledge? To this I answer, in one word, from experience. John Locke History of Psych and the Bracket Challenge Socrates and Plato Aristotle Francis Bacon John Locke Charles Darwin Wilhelm Wundt Edward Titchener William James Sigmund Freud B.F. Skinner Abraham Maslow Modern Psychological Perspectives 1. Neuroscience/Biological How the brain and body (think biology) enable emotions, memories and actions 2. Evolutionary How natural selection of genes leads to survival 3. Humanistic How to healthy humans reach their fullest potential Self-actualization 4. Psychoanalytic How do unconscious (hidden) motives affect motivation, emotion, and actions 5. Behavioral How we acquire knowledge, skills and behaviors through learning and observation 6. Cognitive How we encode, process, store and retrieve information. 7. Socio-Cultural How behavior and thinking vary across cultures. The Biopsychosocial Approach A combination of biological, psychological, and social perspectives used to interpret a phenomenon So you want to get a psychology degree? Careers in Psychology Major Fields in Psychology Counseling Psychology: Assist people with life challenges (school, family, marriage) Clinical Psychology: Assist those with psychological disorders Developmental Psychology: study changes over the lifetime I/O Psychology: study productivity and organization in the work place Psychologist vs. Psychiatrist Psychologist: may provide advice, counsel, or study Psychiatrist: may counsel AND prescribe medicine They are medical doctors!