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The History of Psychology
Okay,What’s Psychology again?
Psychology: the scientific study of behavior
and mental processes
Psychology’s Most
Influential People
Socrates and Plato
400’s-300’s B.C. thinkers who thought
knowledge was innate (born with us).
Dualist- mind and body are separate
300’s B.C. thinker and data lover who
thought knowledge was gained through
Monist- mind and body are one
Psychology in the Middle Ages
Abnormal behavior = possession
Francis Bacon
Ideas contributed to the foundation of
EMPIRICISM (science should be based
on experimentation, experience, data
collection, etc.)
Rene Descartes
1600’s thinker who believed “animal spirits”
were the basis of human learning and
Agreed that knowledge was innate
John Locke
1600’s philosopher and politician who said
the mind was a “blank slate” at birth.
Ideas were the basis for empiricism
Charles Darwin
1800s scientist/explorer and creator the
theories of evolution and natural selection.
Nature (innate abilities) vs. Nurture
(environmental influences)
Wilhelm Wundt
1879: founder of the first psychological
laboratory and first experiment (Atoms of
the Mind)
Edward Titchener
1900‘s Cornell University professor who
introduced structuralism: school of
psychology that used introspection to
explore the elemental structure of the human
William James
1900‘s Harvard University professor who
introduced functionalism: school of
psychology that studied how mental and
behavioral process allowed for adaptation
and survival
Taught Mary Calkins (first female
president of the APA)
Gestalt Psychology
Studied how the mind groups objects as
organized wholes rather than individual parts
Example: Human eyes see an entire
image first and then break down individual
Sigmund Freud
Austrian physician who developed
psychoanalytic theory that centered on the
“unconscious mind”
The Behaviorists
1960s idea: It’s all about external
Ivan Pavlov (Dogs)
John Watson (Little Albert Experiment)
B.F. Skinner (Pigeons)
The Humanists
1970s school of psychology focusing on
healthy human growth potential
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
DO NOW- 1/25/13
1. What is the difference between cognition and
2. What is empiricism and why is it important?
3. What are the similarities between Charles Darwin
and William James?
4. Identify and describe at least 3 major transformations
that psychology has experienced since it foundation.
Quotes in Psychology
"The present argument is this: mental
life and the world in which it is lived
are inventions. They have been
invented on the analogy of external
behavior occurring under external
contingencies. Thinking is behavior.
The mistake is in allocating the
behavior to the mind.”
B.F. Skinner
“There is a psychological technique
which makes it possible to interpret
dreams, and ... if that procedure is
employed, every dream reveals
itself as a psychical structure which
has a meaning and which can be
inserted at an assignable point in
the mental activities of waking life.”
Sigmund Freud
“It is not the strongest of the
species that survives, nor the most
intelligent that survives. It is the
one that is the most adaptable to
Charles Darwin
“If you plan on being anything less
than you are capable of being, you
will probably be unhappy all the
days of your life.”
Abraham Maslow
"Let us then suppose the mind to be, as
we say, white paper void of all characters,
without any ideas. How comes it to be
furnished? Whence comes it by that vast
store which the busy and boundless fancy
of man has painted on it with an almost
endless variety? Whence has it all the
materials of reason and knowledge? To
this I answer, in one word, from
John Locke
History of Psych and the
Bracket Challenge
Socrates and Plato
Francis Bacon
John Locke
Charles Darwin
Wilhelm Wundt
Edward Titchener
William James
Sigmund Freud
B.F. Skinner
Abraham Maslow
Modern Psychological
1. Neuroscience/Biological
How the brain and body (think biology)
enable emotions, memories and actions
2. Evolutionary
How natural selection of genes leads to
3. Humanistic
How to healthy humans reach their fullest
4. Psychoanalytic
How do unconscious (hidden) motives
affect motivation, emotion, and actions
5. Behavioral
How we acquire knowledge, skills and
behaviors through learning and observation
6. Cognitive
How we encode, process, store and retrieve
7. Socio-Cultural
How behavior and thinking vary across
The Biopsychosocial
A combination of biological, psychological,
and social perspectives used to interpret a
So you want to get a
psychology degree?
Careers in Psychology
Major Fields in
Counseling Psychology: Assist people with life
challenges (school, family, marriage)
Clinical Psychology: Assist those with psychological
Developmental Psychology: study changes over the
I/O Psychology: study productivity and organization
in the work place
Psychologist vs.
Psychologist: may provide advice, counsel,
or study
Psychiatrist: may counsel AND prescribe
They are medical doctors!