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Transcript
Introduction
History and Approaches
The scientific study of
behavior and mental
processes.
psychology
The view that (a) knowledge
comes from experience via
the senses, and (b) science
flourishes through
observation and experiment.
empiricism
An early school of
psychology that used
introspection to explore
the elemental structure
of the human mind.
structuralism
A school of psychology that
focused on how mental and
behavioral processes
function – how they enable
the organism to adapt,
survive, and flourish.
functionalism
Historically significant perspective
that emphasized the growth
potential of healthy people; used
personalized methods to study
personality in hopes of fostering
personal growth.
humanistic psychology
The longstanding controversy
over the relative contributions
that genes and experience
make to the development of
psychological traits and
behaviors.
nature-nurture issue
The principle that, among the
range of inherited trait
variations, those contributing
to reproduction and survival
will most likely be passed on
to succeeding generations.
natural selection
The differing complementary
views, from biological to
psychological to social-cultural,
for analyzing any given
phenomenon.
levels of analysis
An integrated perspective
that incorporates biological,
psychological, and socialcultural levels of analysis.
biopsychosocial approach
Pure science that aims to
increase the scientific
knowledge base.
basic research
Scientific study that
aims to solve practical
problems.
applied research
A branch of psychology that
assists people with problems in
living (often related to school,
work, or marriage) and in
achieving greater well-being.
counseling psychology
A branch of psychology that
studies, assesses, and treats
people with psychological
disorders.
clinical psychology
A branch of medicine dealing
with psychological disorders;
practiced by physicians who
sometimes provide medical (for
example, drug) treatments as
well as psychological therapy.
psychiatry