Climate & Atmospheric Changes Ozone Depletion Ozone- molecule consisting of 3 oxygen atoms Benefit to humans because it absorbs harmful UV radiation Ozone layer is being depleted because of the addition of chemicals (esp. CFC’s) that break apart the ozone molecule OZONE VIDEO How ozone is destroyed by CFCs Ozone over Antarctica ANTARCTIC OZONE HOLE (16 MIN) OZZY OZONE (10 MIN) Answer the following questions as they are answered in the video CLIMATE CHANGE Long-term change in the earth's climate, especially a change due to an increase in the average atmospheric temperature. GREENHOUSE EFFECT Causes of Climate Change Description of what it is Explanation of how it impacts climate (What SCIENTISTS say) Volcanic eruptions Eruptions release greenhouse gases (CO2, H2O, and sulfur dioxide) into the air …But, ash can also BLOCK the light… WARMS: more Greenhouse Gases COOLS: reflects light away Sunspots More emitted radiation and increased More sunspots will increase the amount temperatures are found around sunspots of heat that stays within the atmosphere. Earth’s orbit There is variation in Earth’s tilt which affects the amount of solar radiation received. As heat is emitted back out into space, Carbon Dioxide carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbs some of the fluctuations heat. Depending on the season, more or less energy is received from the sun. Heat is retained in the atmosphere (not radiated back into space) causing the global temperature to rise. THEY ARE DIFFERENT!!! Effects of Climate Change Link: The Nature Conservancy 1. HIGHER TEMPERATURES The five hottest years on record have all occurred since 1997. 2. CHANGING LANDSCAPES Changing patterns of rain and snow are forcing trees and plants around the world to move toward polar regions and up mountain slopes ALASKA - Portage Glacier 1914 Photos: NOAA Photo Collection and Gary Braasch – WorldViewOfGlobalWarming.org 2004 ARIZONA- Colorado River June 2002 Dec 2003 Effects of Climate Change 3. WILDLIFE AT RISK Rising temperatures are changing weather and vegetative patterns across the globe, forcing animal species to migrate to new, cooler areas in order to survive. Experts predict that 1/4 of Earth’s species will be headed for extinction by 2050 4. RISING SEAS Sea level rise from climate change could displace tens of millions of people. Sea levels could continue to rise between 4 inches and 36 inches over the next 100 years. Effects of Climate Change 5. INCREASED RISK OF DROUGHT, FIRE & FLOODS Massive land erosion is one result of overgrazing & drought in Kenya 6. STRONGER STORMS & HURRICANES Hurricanes and tropical storms to become more intense — lasting longer, unleashing stronger winds, and causing more damage to coastal ecosystems Effects of Climate Change 7. MORE HEAT RELATED ILLNESS & DISEASE As temperatures rise, so do the risks of heat-related illness and even death for the most vulnerable human populations. Increase the spread of infectious diseases. 8. ECONOMIC LOSSES Climate change could cost between 5 and 20 percent of the annual global gross domestic product. Declining crop yields could put hundreds of thousands of people at risk for starvation. Effects of Climate Change 9. OCEAN ACIDIFICATION As temperatures rise, more CO2 is absorbed by the ocean causing acidic water. 10. EL NINO & LA NINA Weather patterns in the Pacific Ocean change causing an increased frequency of bad weather events to occur around the world. Normal Ocean Water NORMAL • Strong Trade winds towards the western pacific • Warm water off Australia • Cool waters off the coast of South America. • UPWELLING El Nino EL NINO •Weaker trade winds in the pacific ocean •Warm water off Australia moves towards South America •Cool waters off the coast of South America begin to warm. •More evaporation off of S.A. leading to more precipitation floods •Reduced upwelling El Nino During El Nino, upwelling stops, so fishing industry and economy are impacted La Nina LA NINA •STRONG trade winds in the pacific ocean force warm water back to Australia • COLD waters off the coast of South America return. • STRONG upwelling NORMAL YEAR LA NINO NINA EL Does El Nino or La Nina cause more hurricanes to hit the US Coastline (dark line)? LA NINA EVENT Global Atmospheric Concentration of CO2 1000 Years of CO2 & Global Warming Temperature (Northern Hemisphere) Year Year 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 Parts Per Million Degree Celsius Increase CO2 Concentrations Billions of Metric Tons Carbon Goal: Reductions in 2007 CO2 Per Year of Metric Billions CarbonTons Carbon Gigaton Our Goal 2007 Reductions in CO2 Per Year Produce electricity efficiently Use electricity efficiently Vehicle efficiency Solar and Wind Power Biofuels Carbon capture and storage WHAT CAN YOU DO TO HELP SLOW DOWN GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE?