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Transcript
How can I use
models/data/infographics to
explain that climate change is real
and affected by human activity?
Fitting the pieces together
Outline
•
•
•
•
•
•
What changes climate?
Is it real?
How do we know?
Why should we care?
How sure are scientists?
What next—what can we do?
What changes climate?
• Changes in:
– Sun’s output
– Earth’s orbit
– Drifting continents
– Volcanic eruptions
– Greenhouse gases
“Greenhouse
effect”
Increasing greenhouse
gases trap more
heat
Greenhouse gases
Nitrous oxide
Carbon dioxide
Methane
Water
Sulfur hexafluoride
Could the warming be natural?
Is it real? What are the signs,
symptoms, evidence?
•
TASK: Research to find the “puzzle pieces” we
need to complete our project.
• TOPIC--Search for Signs and Symptoms of
climate change.
• What EVIDENCE-data/observations -are
scientists collecting?
timer
• WRITE YOUR LAPTOP # ON YOUR PAPER
• List TOP 3 TOPICS for Infographic Project!
EXAMPLE
Topic: Effects on Precipitation
Evidence:
• US map- Corn Areas experiencing drought
http://arstechnica.com/science/2013/11/impacts-of-climatechange-observed-in-global-precipitation-patterns/
graphic
• US & World precipitation anomalies
data/graph
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/indicators/weath
er-climate/precipitation.html
Is it real?
Effects: Snow and ice
Grinnell Glacier, Glacier National Park
1900 and 2008
Effects on precipitation
Effects on ecosystems
How do we know?
Present day observations
Computer models
Aspen, CO Forecast:
Partly cloudy today
High : 28°F
Low: 13°F
Increasing clouds
over night. Colder
tomorrow.
Why should we care?
U.K.: Train rails buckle
Germany: Lowest river levels
this century
France: >14,000
deaths
Switzerland: Melting
glaciers, avalanches
Portugal: Forest fires
2003 European Heat Wave
Sea-level rise projections : a few inches to a few feet
•2 ft: U.S. would lose 10,000 square miles
•3 ft: Would inundate Miami
•Affects erosion, loss of wetlands, freshwater supplies
•Half of the world’s population lives along coasts
•Big question: Ice sheets
How sure are scientists?
What don’t we know?
• Is there some critical piece of the about climate process we don’t
understand?
• How and when will our fossil fuel use change?
• Will future , yet-to-be-discovered technologies mitigate the problem?
• How will changing economics, global population, and political processes
affect our ability to tackle the problem?
The IPCC
2007 Conclusions
• Warming of the climate system is unequivocal
• Very high confidence that global average net effect of
human activities since 1750 one of warming
• Human-caused warming over last 30 years has likely had
a visible influence on many physical and biological
systems
• Continued GHG emissions at or above current rates
would cause further warming and induce many changes
in the global climate system during the 21st century that
would very likely be larger than those observed during
the 20th century.”
Consensus?
• Do we know enough about the
drivers of climate to know what
causes change?
• Are we underestimating the Earth
system’s complexity ?
• Can models accurately simulate
the complex climate system?
•Are there processes that will limit
warming naturally?
On the other hand…
• Arctic sea ice melting faster than predicted.
• Fossil fuel emissions exceeded most IPCC
projections.
• Are assumptions about global energy use are
too optimistic?
•How quickly can developing countries reduce
GHG emissions?
• Calculations don’t include unexpected melting
in Greenland and Antarctica.
What do climate scientists really think?
Be an educated consumer
• IPCC AR4 Synthesis Report
(http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-syr.htm)
• Other organizations:
– NAS (http://dels.nas.edu/climatechange/)
– US CCSP (http://www.climatescience.gov/)
• Look for contrasting opinions
• Evaluate the source
What next—what can we do?
What next—what can we do?
Produce more fuel-efficient vehicles
Reduce vehicle use
Improve energy-efficiency in buildings
Develop carbon capture and storage processes
Triple nuclear power
Increase solar power
Decrease deforestation/plant forests
Improve soil carbon management strategies
Individual actions
Use mass
transit, bike,
walk, roller
skate
Buy water-saving
appliances and
toilets; installing
low-flow shower
heads.
Tune up
your
furnace
Caulk,
weatherstrip,
insulate, and
replace old
windows
Unplug
appliances or
plug into a
power strip and
switch it off
Buy products
with a U.S. EPA
Energy Star
label