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Done by:
Food items that have had their DNA changed
through genetic engineering.
Conventional method was through time-tested
conventional breeding of plants and animals.
GMO combines genes from different organisms
(this is known as recombinant DNA technology),
and the resulting organism is said to be
"genetically modified," "genetically engineered,"
or "transgenic."
GM products include medicines and vaccines,
foods and food ingredients, feeds, and fibers.
Biotechnology is not very precise.
During the genetic manipulation process, the
location where a gene is inserted into an
organism's genetic code is uncontrollable.
Also a stable expression of the gene into the
new genetically engineered organism is not
This is why when scientists tried to clone an
animal; they ended up with hundreds of
deformities and other mutations before they
finally succeeded.
Example 1:
 Scientists discovered an anti-freeze gene in a
plant in Antarctica
 They isolated the gene sequence responsible
for the Antarctic plant's frost resistance and
inserted it into a test plant
 They found that found that under certain
conditions the test plant had the same frostresistant characteristics.
Example 2:
 DNA from the flounder fish (which produces a
kind of natural anti-freeze in this cold-water
species) introduced into GMO fruits to
provide greater frost-resistance.
Higher crop yield by:
 Unexpected frost can destroy sensitive
seedlings. With an antifreeze gene, these
plants are able to tolerate cold temperatures
that normally would kill unmodified seedlings
• Economic benefits:
 Reduced
economic losses due to frost
than from any other weather-related
The increasing use of GM in major crops
has caused a major power shift in
agriculture towards Biotechnology
companies, which are gaining more control
over the production chain of crops and food,
and over the farmers that use their products.
"They're now turning those seeds into
intellectual property, so they have a virtual
lock on the seeds upon which we all depend
for our food and survival." - Jeremy Rifkin
Threat to biodiversity
 Accidental gene transfer to non- target species
(eg. Weedssuperweeds- harder to kill)
 Insect pests will develop resistance to the new
genes (organic crops will suffer even more)
 Threat to our health
 Might be allergic to the gene (Brazil nut genes
combined into soybeans- people allergic to
that nut go into anaphylactic shock and can
cause death)