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Principles of Genetic Engineering
What is genetic engineering
Genetic engineering, also known as recombinant
DNA technology, means altering the genes in a
living organism to produce a new genotype.
Various kinds of genetic modification are possible:
– inserting a foreign gene from one species into
– altering an existing gene so that its product is
– changing gene expression so that it is
translated more often or not at all.
Selective Breeding
Changing gene expression so that it is translated
more often or not at all.
Humans have been doing this for centuries.
A clone produces two organisms with exactly the
same genes.
Plants are easily cloned by vegetative
propagation; cuttings, layering, etc.
Animals can also be cloned. The diploid nucleus
of and egg cell is replaced with the haploid
nucleus of a body cell. Doesn’t work very well –
too many genes are turned off.
Making Recombinant
DNA – Gene Splicing
1) Isolate pieces of DNA
with desirable gene.
2) Inserting DNA into host
plasmid which is bacteria
or a virus.
3) Cloning vector.
4 )Selecting clones with
desired genes.
Step 1: Isolating the gene
Proteins called “restriction enzymes” are
used to cut the DNA into small pieces.
Step 2: Inserting gene into vector
Vector – molecule
of DNA which is
used to carry a
foreign gene into a
host cell.
Step 3:
Cloning Vector
All genetically
because of
Outcomes of Genetic Engineering
Safety of Genetic Engineering
New kinds of organisms
– New diseases
– Epidemic
– Insulin production for diabetics
– Interferon
– Fixing genetic defects
• Producing hormones or enzymes