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Transcript
Issues:
Question 1: DNA screening is a valuable tool for determining whether a person is genetically predisposed to
certain diseases. However, it raises ethical issues related to privacy, choice, access, treatment, and discrimination. It
also raises questions about how far society should go in using available technologies, who funds research, and who
owns or manages the resulting product or technology.
Question 2: Life extension science, also known as anti-aging medicine looks at extending the life of an
individual indefinitely or at the very least, slowing it down significantly. What are the ethical ramifications of such
an act? What are the practical ramifications?
Question 3: Ultrasound is routinely used during pregnancy to monitor the development of the fetus. It is also used
to perform amniocentesis, which screens for genetic disorders, and allows doctors to perform surgery on the fetus
before birth to correct some abnormalities. However, there have been few studies on the long-term effects of the
use of ultrasound.
Question 4: Should performance enhancing drugs (such as steroids) be accepted in sports? Those who argue
yes say that the harmful health effects have been overstated, that health risks are an athlete’s decision to make, that
using drugs is part of the evolution of sports much like improved training techniques and new technologies.
Opponents argue that PEDs are harmful and potentially fatal, that athletes who use them are cheaters who gain an
unfair advantage, violate the spirit of competition, and send the wrong message to children.
Question 5: What strategies are included in public health initiatives aimed at reducing the incidence of
smoking-related diseases? What impact have these initiatives had on smoking rates and associated medical costs?
Question 6: Gene therapy is a way of treating/preventing genetic disorders at the genetic level. If genes in
gametes could be corrected without harm, gene therapy could prevent disease in offspring. This can also be
thought of as a way to genetically engineer certain characteristics into a child. Some consider this our right
given our knowledge while others feel that we are playing God.
Question 7: “It is possible, through prenatal genetic screening, to determine which four-to-eight-cell human
embryos are male and female and to implant into the uterus only those of the desired sex.” This can prevent certain
diseases from becoming apparent (e.g. X-linked hemophilia or Tay-Sachs disease). “However, if a couple have a
son and want a daughter, should they not be allowed to have sex selection to get one? If a couple has daughters and
the husband wants a son to "carry on his name," should they be allowed to use this technology? Once the
technology has been developed, though, there are no laws (in the United States) making it illegal to have sex
selection for any reason”
Question 8: Altering hormone levels in livestock in order to improve output (amount of beef, milk, etc.) These
products are then ingested by humans. Studies have found that this has led to increases in estrogens levels in males
and females which has been shown to have some serious adverse affect.
Question 9: Patenting genes that are discovered. Who if anyone has the right to own a gene and should they be
able to benefit from their discoveries. Must include specific examples.
Question 10: Karyotyping at birth. If DNA testing shows that you have a higher chance of a chronic illness,
should Health Insurance companies be able to charge you more? Should your genes be able to determine what
type of job you are suitable for (e.g. those with perfect genes get all the best jobs, etc. while those who lack
certain genetic characteristics are prevented from getting them. Is this a form of discrimination?
Question 11: Is Ritalin overused in the treatment of ADHD? Is it possible that many children are prescribed this
who don't need it?
Question 12: Animal testing. Many pharmaceutical companies must test their products on animals to ensure that
it is safe for humans. Scientists use animals such as mice and monkeys for research purposes. Specifically,
“vivisection is defined as surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism, typically animals with
a central nervous system, to view living internal structure. The term is sometimes more broadly defined as any
experimentation on live animals.” However, many of these experiments and trials are used to keep humans safe
and find cures for fatal diseases. Is it worth the price?
Question 13: Examine the findings of Dr. Paolo Zamboni’s and state to the class 1) what disease he is looking
into 2) what “cure” has he found 3) The issues associated with this “cure” 4) what this could mean for those
affected
Question 14: What is cloning and what are the ethical issues associated with it? Include in your discussion the
benefits of cloning for medical purposes (e.g. “spare parts”, etc.)
Question 15: What are the ethical arguments for and against stem-cell research? What ethical issues might arise
when a drug company funds trials of a new drug it has developed to treat a genetic disorder? Who should determine
how the results of transgenic research in plants and animals will be applied?
Question 16: Gene theft or DNA theft means that you obtain the genetic material of another human being without
permission. This DNA can harvested from discarded organs or other objects which contain the persons genetic
material. This acquired DNA can then be used in a number of ways. Using and selling tissues or aborted fetuses.
Question 17: Early-childhood vaccination programs have greatly reduced the incidence of certain diseases and
the social and medical costs associated with them. Influenced by controversial studies arguing that there may be
health risks associated with such vaccines, some parents have chosen not to vaccinate their children, which could
lead to a resurgence of these potentially deadly diseases.
Question 18: Medicare to children who haven’t been vaccinated
Question 19: Baiting animals for sport as opposed to open hunting
Question 20: Chemical mixture used on death row torturing person before death
Question 21: Mass raising lovestock
Question 22: Guradasil/HPV shot
Question 23: Medical marijuana
Question 24: In vitro fertilization, insurance, population
Question 25: disposal of unused zygotes
Question 26: Right to know/euthanasia