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1.Define Eukaryote Cells. Cells that store their chromosomes INSIDE of A nucleus. 2. Define Prokaryote Cells: “Primitive cells that do NOT have a nucleus.” List FOUR examples of Eukaryote cells: Animals Plants Protist FUNGI 4.List the only example of Prokaryote cells that exist: 5. Ribosomes (a) Their job? To assemble the proteins needed by the cell. (b) What are they made of? Ribosomes are made from RNA and Protein. c) Location of the ribosomes within the Eukaryotic cell? 3 (a)Attached to the side of the Endoplasmic Reticulum. (b)Free floating within the cytoplasm (c)Attached to the wall of the Nuclear membrane. 6. Compare and contrast ribosomes in Prokaryote and Eukaryote cells: Compare Ribosomes of both types assemble proteins necessary for cell use, making them the MOST ABUNDANT ORGANELLE in the cell. Contrast: In Eukaryote cells,Ribosomes are found attached to organelles and free floating within the cytoplasm. In Prokaryote cells, the ribosomes are all free floating within the cytoplasm. 7. In the Eukaryote cell, differentiate the proteins that are created by free-floating ribosomes and the proteins creatd by attached ribosomes. Free floating ribosomes create protein that is for immediate use by the cell. Attached ribosomes transport their proteins out of the cell for other cell use, or store it in vacuoles. 8.Differentiate the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum: ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM: Has ribosomes attached to the outside of it. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum? NO RIBOSOMES. 9. Describe the Endoplasmic Reticulum: The ER is a network of interconnected, flattened, or tubelike structures. 10.What is the job of the Endoplasmic Reticulum? They make up the PROTEIN TRANSPORT SYSTEM inside the cell 11.GOLGI BODIES: (a) What are they? Special worksites where the completed proteins are received from the ER. b) What is the job of these golgi Bodies? The new proteins are sorted, and packaged into vesicles for transport out of the cell. 12. Explain the INTERACTION that exist between ribosomes, golgi bodies,and the Endoplasmic Reticulum: a Ribosomes assemble the proteins from amino acids found within the cytoplasm. b Ribosomes then transport the newly assembled protein to the Endoplasmic Reticulum. c The ER sends the protein over to the Golgi bodies for sorting and packaging. d After packaging, the golgi may return the protein to the ER for intercellular transport, or place it in a vesicle for movement out of the cell. 13. MITOCHONDRIA: a Why is the Mitochondria called the powerhouse of the Cell? Converts sugars into usable energy for the cell. b Explain why some cells have more mitochondria than other cells: Some cells have a GREATER energy need than other cells. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ex. A heart cell would need more energy to function than a skin cell would. Pops c Describe the appearance of the mitochondria: The mitochondria may look like spheres, cylinders, or peanuts. Most common Form. d What part of the mitochondria is involved in cell respiration? Inside the mitochondria are inner folds called “Christi” 14. Describe the Cell Respiration Process: a) Sugar molecules and oxygen molecules are moved into the mitochondria. C6H12O6 O2 b) The sugar molecule is combined with the oxygen. C6H12O6 + O2 c) The sugar molecule is torn apart! d) The energy that is freed from the breakdown of one sugar molecule is transferred to 36 ATP carrier molecules for cell use. 15. Nucleus a)What is it? A vault – like structure that stores and protects the Genetic Material. b) What name is given to the plasma membrane that surrounds the nucleus? Nuclear membrane or Nuclear Envelope c) What is Chromatin? Thin strands of DNA Looks like a plate of spaghetti d) Where is the chromatin located? Locked away within the nucleus. e) What are Chromosomes? Thick, stubby coils of chromatin. Created when the cell is going to divide. f) What are chromosomes made of and what is their function? Chromosomes are made of DNA and contain the genetic code or blue prints for the creation of proteins used by the cell. g) How does the nucleus get the instructions from the chromosomes to the organelles in the cytoplasm? The nucleus will allow the chromatin to be “read” by RNA messenger molecules. The RNA molecule now can carry the copied instructions out of the nucleus. g) What is the Nucleolus? A large cluster of RNA found inside the nucleus. h) What is the first thing that a cell will do when it is preparing to divide? Why is this necessary? The chromatin is coiled up and duplicated. Why? So that both daughter cells that are created will have the exact same genetic materials. 16. Plastids a)What type of cells contain plastids? PLANTS B) What is the function of the plastids? Used to store lipids, starches, and photosynthetic pigments. c) What is the most recognizable plastid? CHLOROPLAST D) What chemicals are found in chloroplast and what is the job of these chemicals? “CHLOROPHYLL and other photosynthetic pigments. Used to harvest or collect solar energy. 17. Lysosomes: Organelles that Contain Digestive Enzymes! b) How are lysosomes used in the digestion of ingested food particles? The lysosome attached itself to the vacuole containing the trapped food particle. Then it injects digestive enyzmes into the vacuole. c) How are lysosomes used in the recycling of old, worn-out cell parts? The lysosome attaches itself to the worn out part and covers it with digestive enzymes to break it down for recycling. d) What would happen if the plasma membrane of the lysosome was to rupture? The digestive eyzymes would destroy the cell by melting the interior of the cell. 18. Vacuoles a)What are they? Long term storage compartments within the cell. b) Differentiate the vacuoles fond in animal cells and the vacuole found in plant cells. The animal cell stores different things in individual small vacuoles. The plant cell stores EVERYTHING in ONE large central vacuole. C. How is the plant vacuole involved in TURGER? In WILTING? When the plant vacuole is full of water the plant stands up tall. Plant strength is due to water pressure called Turger. When the turger is low, the plant loses strength and wilts. D. What are CONTRACTILE VACOLES? Special vacuoles found in protist that will soak up extra water, carry the water to the cell membrane and eject the excess water from the protist. 19. CYTOSKELETON What is it? .Long thin strands of protein that is manufactured by the cell. Located inside the cell. What is the job of the cytoskeleton .To give shape and support to the cell by creating an internal protein framework. What are microfilaments? .A part of the cytoskeleton that is composed of thin strands of two proteins: ACTIN and MYOSIN. What is the major job of the Microfilaments? . Pull and tug on the plasma membrane to cause the entire cell to move. How do microfilaments allow You do move? .They tug on the cell membrane of the muscle cells. This causes contraction. Then muscle pull the bone and you move. How do microfilaments allow Protist such as the amoeba To move? The continual pulling and pushing of the amoeba’s cell membrane allows it to change shape in order to move and capture food. What are microtubules? .Thicker protein fibers that pull things around on the inside of the cell. Work like a tow truck! What is the job of the Microtubules? .They pull organelles around inside the cytoplasm. What are Centrioles? How are They used? .Centrioles are bundles of microtubules rolled into cylinders . They produce the fibers that pull duplicated chromosomes apart during cell division. What are Cilia and Flagella and How are they used? .They are protein extensions of the cell membrane. They are used for movement of the cell. Flagella Cilia 20. Discuss the Symbiotic Theory: One bacteria engulfed another bacteria for food. Engulfed cells began to perform a useful function. Instead of being digested, the two cells began to work together in a symbiotic relationship. Pop’s Note: Evidence for the Symbiotic Theory? Mitochondria and Chloroplast have their own DNA. Pop’s Note Weakness in the theory? It doesn’t explain where the other organelles came from. Cell Wall Found in Cells of: Plants and bacteria Function: Protection Centrioles Found in Cells of: Animals Function: Create Spindle fibers used to separate chromosomes during cell division. Chloroplast Found in Cells of: Plants, some Protist. Function: Photosynthesis Cytoplasm Found in Cells of: All Function: Site for all chemical reactions. Endoplasmic Reticulum Found in Cells of: Plant & Animal Function: Transport newly created protein from ribosome to the golgi body. Golgi Body Found in Cells of:Plant and animal Function: Sort and package protein from shipment out of the cell. Lysosomes Found in Cells of: Plant and animals Function: Digestion of food particles and the dissolving of worn out cell parts Microfilaments Found in Cells of: Animal, plant Function:Movement of the entire cell Microtubules Found in Cells of: Plant, animal Function: Pulling organelles around inside the cytoplasm. Nucleolus Found in Cells of: Plant and animals Function: Manufactures ribosomes Nucleus Found in Cells of:Plant and animals. Function: Stores and protects the DNA. Plasma-Cell membrane Found in Cells of: Plant, animal Function: Controls what enters and leaves the cell. Ribosomes Found in Cells of:plant and animal Function:Assembles proteins from amino acids found in the cytoplasm. Vacuoles Found in Cells of: Plant, animal Function: storage of food, water, or waste ADD THIS ORGANELLE TO YOUR LIST: Peroxisome Found in Cells of: plant, animal Function: Speeds up the breakdown of deadly hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas.