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Transcript
1.Define Eukaryote Cells.
Cells that store their
chromosomes INSIDE of A
nucleus.
2. Define Prokaryote Cells:
“Primitive cells that do NOT
have a nucleus.”
List FOUR examples of
Eukaryote cells:
Animals
Plants
Protist
FUNGI
4.List the only example of
Prokaryote cells that exist:
5. Ribosomes
(a) Their job?
To assemble the
proteins needed
by the cell.
(b) What are
they made of?
Ribosomes are
made from
RNA and
Protein.
c) Location of the ribosomes
within the Eukaryotic cell?
3
(a)Attached to the side of the
Endoplasmic Reticulum.
(b)Free floating within the
cytoplasm
(c)Attached to the wall of the
Nuclear membrane.
6. Compare and contrast
ribosomes in Prokaryote and
Eukaryote cells:
Compare
Ribosomes of both types
assemble proteins necessary for
cell use, making them the
MOST ABUNDANT
ORGANELLE in the cell.
Contrast:
In Eukaryote cells,Ribosomes
are found attached to organelles
and free floating within the
cytoplasm.
In Prokaryote cells, the
ribosomes are all free floating
within the cytoplasm.
7. In the Eukaryote cell,
differentiate the proteins that are
created by free-floating
ribosomes and the proteins
creatd by attached ribosomes.
Free floating ribosomes create
protein that is for immediate use
by the cell.
Attached ribosomes transport
their proteins out of the cell for
other cell use, or store it in
vacuoles.
8.Differentiate the rough
endoplasmic reticulum and the
smooth endoplasmic
reticulum:
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM:
Has ribosomes attached to the
outside of it.
Smooth Endoplasmic
Reticulum?
NO RIBOSOMES.
9. Describe the Endoplasmic
Reticulum:
The ER is a network of
interconnected, flattened, or
tubelike structures.
10.What is the job of the
Endoplasmic Reticulum?
They make up the PROTEIN
TRANSPORT SYSTEM
inside the cell
11.GOLGI BODIES:
(a) What are they?
Special worksites where the
completed proteins are
received from the ER.
b) What is the job of these golgi
Bodies?
The new proteins are sorted,
and packaged into vesicles for
transport out of the cell.
12. Explain the
INTERACTION that exist
between ribosomes, golgi
bodies,and the Endoplasmic
Reticulum:
a Ribosomes assemble the
proteins from amino acids
found within the
cytoplasm.
b
Ribosomes then
transport the newly
assembled protein to the
Endoplasmic Reticulum.
c The ER sends the protein
over to the Golgi bodies
for sorting and packaging.
d
After packaging, the
golgi may return the
protein to the ER for
intercellular transport, or
place it in a vesicle for
movement out of the cell.
13. MITOCHONDRIA:
a Why is the Mitochondria
called the powerhouse of the
Cell?
Converts sugars into usable
energy for the cell.
b
Explain why some cells have
more mitochondria than other
cells:
Some cells have a GREATER
energy need than other cells.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ex. A heart cell would need
more energy to function
than a skin cell would.
Pops
c
Describe the appearance of the
mitochondria:
The mitochondria may look
like spheres, cylinders, or
peanuts.
Most common
Form.
d
What part of the
mitochondria is involved in
cell respiration?
Inside the
mitochondria are
inner folds called
“Christi”
14. Describe the Cell
Respiration Process:
a) Sugar molecules and
oxygen molecules are moved
into the mitochondria.
C6H12O6
O2
b) The sugar molecule is
combined with the oxygen.
C6H12O6 + O2
c) The sugar molecule is torn
apart!
d) The energy that is freed from
the breakdown of one sugar
molecule is transferred to 36
ATP carrier molecules for cell
use.
15. Nucleus
a)What is it?
A vault – like structure that
stores and protects the Genetic
Material.
b) What name is given to the
plasma membrane that
surrounds the nucleus?
Nuclear membrane or
Nuclear Envelope
c) What is Chromatin?
Thin strands of DNA
Looks like a plate of
spaghetti
d) Where is the chromatin
located?
Locked away within the
nucleus.
e) What are Chromosomes?
Thick, stubby coils of
chromatin. Created when the
cell is going to divide.
f) What are chromosomes made
of and what is their function?
Chromosomes are made of
DNA and contain the genetic
code or blue prints for the
creation of proteins used by the
cell.
g) How does the nucleus get the
instructions from the
chromosomes to the organelles
in the cytoplasm?
The nucleus will allow the
chromatin to be “read” by RNA
messenger molecules. The
RNA molecule now can carry
the copied instructions out of
the nucleus.
g) What is the Nucleolus?
A large cluster of RNA found
inside the nucleus.
h) What is the first thing that a
cell will do when it is
preparing to divide? Why is
this necessary?
The chromatin is coiled up
and duplicated.
Why?
So that both daughter cells
that are created will have the
exact same genetic materials.
16. Plastids
a)What type of cells contain
plastids?
PLANTS
B) What is the function of the
plastids?
Used to store lipids, starches,
and photosynthetic pigments.
c) What is the most
recognizable plastid?
CHLOROPLAST
D) What chemicals are found in
chloroplast and what is the job
of these chemicals?
“CHLOROPHYLL and other
photosynthetic pigments.
Used to harvest or collect solar
energy.
17. Lysosomes:
Organelles that
Contain
Digestive
Enzymes!
b) How are lysosomes used in
the digestion of ingested food
particles?
The lysosome attached itself
to the vacuole containing the
trapped food particle. Then it
injects digestive enyzmes into
the vacuole.
c) How are lysosomes used in
the recycling of old, worn-out
cell parts?
The lysosome attaches itself to
the worn out part and covers it
with digestive enzymes to
break it down for recycling.
d) What would happen if the
plasma membrane of the
lysosome was to rupture?
The digestive eyzymes would
destroy the cell by melting the
interior of the cell.
18. Vacuoles
a)What are they?
Long term storage
compartments within the
cell.
b) Differentiate the vacuoles
fond in animal cells and the
vacuole found in plant cells.
The animal cell stores
different things in individual
small vacuoles.
The plant cell stores
EVERYTHING in ONE large
central vacuole.
C. How is the plant vacuole
involved in TURGER? In
WILTING?
When the plant vacuole is full
of water the plant stands up
tall. Plant strength is due to
water pressure called Turger.
When the turger is low, the
plant loses strength and wilts.
D. What are CONTRACTILE
VACOLES?
Special vacuoles found in
protist that will soak up extra
water, carry the water to the
cell membrane and eject the
excess water from the protist.
19.
CYTOSKELETON
What is it?
.Long thin strands of protein
that is manufactured by the cell.
Located inside the cell.
What is the job of the
cytoskeleton
.To give shape and support to
the cell by creating an internal
protein framework.
What are microfilaments?
.A part of the cytoskeleton that
is composed of thin strands of
two proteins: ACTIN and
MYOSIN.
What is the major job of the
Microfilaments?
. Pull and tug on the plasma
membrane to cause the entire
cell to move.
How do microfilaments allow
You do move?
.They tug on the cell membrane
of the muscle cells. This causes
contraction. Then muscle pull
the bone and you move.
How do microfilaments allow
Protist such as the amoeba
To move?
The continual pulling and
pushing of the amoeba’s cell
membrane allows it to change
shape in order to move and
capture food.
What are microtubules?
.Thicker protein fibers that pull
things around on the inside of
the cell. Work like a tow truck!
What is the job of the
Microtubules?
.They pull organelles around
inside the cytoplasm.
What are Centrioles? How are
They used?
.Centrioles are bundles of
microtubules rolled into cylinders .
They produce the fibers that pull
duplicated chromosomes apart
during cell division.
What are Cilia and Flagella and
How are they used?
.They are protein extensions of
the cell membrane. They are
used for movement of the cell.
Flagella
Cilia
20. Discuss the Symbiotic
Theory:
One bacteria engulfed another
bacteria for food.
Engulfed cells began to perform
a useful function.
Instead of being digested, the two
cells began to work together in a
symbiotic relationship.
Pop’s Note:
Evidence for the Symbiotic
Theory?
Mitochondria and Chloroplast
have their own DNA.
Pop’s Note
Weakness in the theory?
It doesn’t explain where the
other organelles came from.
Cell Wall
Found in Cells of: Plants and
bacteria
Function: Protection
Centrioles
Found in Cells of: Animals
Function: Create Spindle fibers
used to separate chromosomes
during cell division.
Chloroplast
Found in Cells of: Plants, some
Protist.
Function: Photosynthesis
Cytoplasm
Found in Cells of: All
Function: Site for all chemical
reactions.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Found in Cells of: Plant &
Animal
Function: Transport newly
created protein from ribosome
to the golgi body.
Golgi Body
Found in Cells of:Plant and
animal
Function: Sort and package
protein from shipment out of the
cell.
Lysosomes
Found in Cells of: Plant and
animals
Function: Digestion of food
particles and the dissolving of
worn out cell parts
Microfilaments
Found in Cells of: Animal, plant
Function:Movement of the
entire cell
Microtubules
Found in Cells of: Plant, animal
Function: Pulling organelles
around inside the cytoplasm.
Nucleolus
Found in Cells of: Plant and
animals
Function: Manufactures
ribosomes
Nucleus
Found in Cells of:Plant and
animals.
Function: Stores and protects
the DNA.
Plasma-Cell membrane
Found in Cells of: Plant, animal
Function: Controls what enters
and leaves the cell.
Ribosomes
Found in Cells of:plant and
animal
Function:Assembles proteins
from amino acids found in the
cytoplasm.
Vacuoles
Found in Cells of: Plant, animal
Function: storage of food,
water, or waste
ADD THIS ORGANELLE TO
YOUR LIST:
Peroxisome
Found in Cells of: plant, animal
Function: Speeds up the
breakdown of deadly hydrogen
peroxide into water and oxygen
gas.