The Cell: What are its parts? NUCLEUS • Controls all the chemical reactions that happen in the cell. • Contains the cell’s DNA. E.R. • Carries the proteins from the ribosomes. RIBOSOMES • Where proteins are made. • Necessary for the DNA to work. • ALL cells have these. GOLGI • “Packages” the proteins. • Often connected to the E.R. MITOCHONDRIA • Where sugar is turned into usable energy. LYSOSOMES • Bags of enzymes. • Allows the cell to self destruct. VACUOLE • Holds things for the cell, often WATER. • Can also hold food. CYTOPLASM • It is the water inside the cell. CELL MEMBRANE • Controls what goes in and out of the cell. CELL WALL • Gives the cell shape and strength. • Plants have these, animals do not. • Made of cellulose. CHLOROPLAST • Where photosynthesis happens. • Plants have these and animals do not. • These are green. PART II What are the differences between animal cells and plant cells? #1 Animal cells are ROUND, plant cells are RECTANGULAR. ANIMAL PLANT #2 Plant cells have cell walls. Animal cells don’t have cell walls. The cell wall is very obvious around this onion cell. #3 Plant cells have CHLOROPLASTS. Animal cells don’t. We can’t do photosynthesis because we don’t have chloroplasts. #4 Plant cells usually have a large water vacuole. Animal cells don’t. You can see the water vacuole takes up most of the plant cell. Part III We know about plant and animal cells…. What about OTHER kinds of cells? PROTISTS • A PROTIST is a very small organism. • Its whole body is just one cell. • This is an AMOEBA. PROTISTS Compare the AMOEBA photograph with the drawing. PROTISTS This is a PARAMECIUM. PROTISTS This is a EUGLENA. PROTISTS We might see some protists when we look at pond water under a microscope.