Cells & The Cell Theory Cornell Notes What are cells? • Cells are the building blocks for all living things. • First discovered in the 1600s by English scientist Robert Hooke. He observed cork under a microscope and observed blocks that reminded him of the small rooms that monks lived in at a monastery, so he called them cells. What is the cell theory? • All living things are made of cells. • Cells are the basic unit of structure and organization in all living things. • All cells are created by other cells. • The cell theory was created by two German scientist Matthias Schlieden and Theodor Schwann in the 1830s. What are the two types of cells? • Prokaryotic cells are very simple cells that lack a nucleus; the genetic information (DNA) is free floating in the cell. • Eukaryotic cells are more complex cells that contain a nucleus; where the genetic information is contained. Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells What are the parts (organelles) of a cell? • Nucleus—the brain or control center of the cell; contains the DNA. • Endoplasmic reticulum—the passageways where cellular chemical reactions occur (esp. proteins) • Ribosomes—produce proteins for the cell • Cytoplasm—gel like substance that supports the organelles. • Cell membrane—selectively permeable outer layer that protects and determines what can enter and exit the cell. • Vacuole—the storage area of a cell; it stores food, waste and water. • Mitochondria—produces the energy for the cell; known as the power house. • Lysosome—breaks down worn out cell parts and large food particles. • Golgi Apparatus—move particles in and out of the cell and around the cell. • Cell wall—supports and protects the cell (only found in plant like cells) • Chloroplast—turns sunlight into food through the process known as photosynthesis (only found in plant like cells) Animal Cell What does an Animal Cell look like? (Include drawing in your notes). Plant Cell What does a Plant Cell look like? (include the drawing in your notes) What does the nucleus look like and do? • The nucleus is the control center (brain) of the cell. It is composed of several parts. – Nuclear envelope—protective barrier that surrounds the nucleus. – Nuclear pores—pores in the nuclear envelope that allow materials to enter and exit the nucleus. – Chromatin—strands of DNA. – Nucleolus—it makes ribosomes for the cell. The Nucleus What do cells do in organisms? • All cells in a body have a specific job. In order for an organism to survive each cell must do it job. • Ex: heart cells job is to pump blood, red blood cells job is to distribute oxygen throughout the body and white blood cells job is to fight of infections and diseases. What is a group of cells? • A group of cells from what is known as tissue. • Tissue is part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function. Tissue What is a group of tissues that work together? • A group of tissue working together is called an organ. • An organ is a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function. Organs What are a group of organs working together called? • A group of organs that work together is called an organ system. • Organ system is a group of organs that work together to form a certain task. • The human body is composed of 11 organ systems. Organ Systems What are the organ systems and their jobs? • Digestive system—job is to break down the food and drink we consume into energy for our bodies. • Circulatory system—job is to move blood throughout the body. • Nervous system—job is to obtain and relay messages throughout the body. • Skeletal system—job is to provide support to your body. • Muscular system—job is to provide movement for the body. • Respiratory system—job is to provide oxygen to the body and remove carbon dioxide. • Excretory system—job is to remove waste from the body. • Endocrine system—job is to produce chemicals that help regulate and control the body, known as hormones. • Reproductive system—job is to produce offspring to ensure the species doesn’t die • Lymphatic/Immune system—job is to keep the body healthy and remove pathogens. • Integumentary system—job is to protect the body from danger. Copyright Information • All images displayed in this presentation are the property of their respective owners, and no copyright infringement is intended. • Images displayed in this presentation are being used under the "Fair Use" guidelines for educators for educational purposes only. • Please contact [email protected] if you are the owner of a posted image and would like for its use to be discontinued.