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Cells & The Cell Theory
Cornell Notes
What are cells?
• Cells are the building blocks for all living
• First discovered in the 1600s by English
scientist Robert Hooke. He observed cork
under a microscope and observed blocks
that reminded him of the small rooms that
monks lived in at a monastery, so he
called them cells.
What is the cell theory?
• All living things are made of cells.
• Cells are the basic unit of structure and
organization in all living things.
• All cells are created by other cells.
• The cell theory was created by two
German scientist Matthias Schlieden and
Theodor Schwann in the 1830s.
What are the two types of cells?
• Prokaryotic cells are very simple cells that
lack a nucleus; the genetic information
(DNA) is free floating in the cell.
• Eukaryotic cells are more complex cells
that contain a nucleus; where the genetic
information is contained.
Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells
What are the parts (organelles) of a
• Nucleus—the brain or control center of the
cell; contains the DNA.
• Endoplasmic reticulum—the passageways
where cellular chemical reactions occur
(esp. proteins)
• Ribosomes—produce proteins for the cell
• Cytoplasm—gel like substance that
supports the organelles.
• Cell membrane—selectively permeable
outer layer that protects and determines
what can enter and exit the cell.
• Vacuole—the storage area of a cell; it
stores food, waste and water.
• Mitochondria—produces the energy for the
cell; known as the power house.
• Lysosome—breaks down worn out cell
parts and large food particles.
• Golgi Apparatus—move particles in and
out of the cell and around the cell.
• Cell wall—supports and protects the cell
(only found in plant like cells)
• Chloroplast—turns sunlight into food
through the process known as
photosynthesis (only found in plant like
Animal Cell
What does an Animal Cell look like?
(Include drawing in your notes).
Plant Cell
What does a Plant Cell look like?
(include the drawing in your notes)
What does the nucleus look like
and do?
• The nucleus is the control center (brain) of
the cell. It is composed of several parts.
– Nuclear envelope—protective barrier that
surrounds the nucleus.
– Nuclear pores—pores in the nuclear envelope
that allow materials to enter and exit the
– Chromatin—strands of DNA.
– Nucleolus—it makes ribosomes for the cell.
The Nucleus
What do cells do in organisms?
• All cells in a body have a specific job. In
order for an organism to survive each cell
must do it job.
• Ex: heart cells job is to pump blood, red
blood cells job is to distribute oxygen
throughout the body and white blood cells
job is to fight of infections and diseases.
What is a group of cells?
• A group of cells from what is known as
• Tissue is part of an organism consisting of
an aggregate of cells having a similar
structure and function.
What is a group of tissues that
work together?
• A group of tissue working together is
called an organ.
• An organ is a fully differentiated structural
and functional unit in an animal that is
specialized for some particular function.
What are a group of organs
working together called?
• A group of organs that work together is
called an organ system.
• Organ system is a group of organs that
work together to form a certain task.
• The human body is composed of 11 organ
Organ Systems
What are the organ systems and
their jobs?
• Digestive system—job is to break down
the food and drink we consume into
energy for our bodies.
• Circulatory system—job is to move blood
throughout the body.
• Nervous system—job is to obtain and
relay messages throughout the body.
• Skeletal system—job is to provide support
to your body.
• Muscular system—job is to provide
movement for the body.
• Respiratory system—job is to provide
oxygen to the body and remove carbon
• Excretory system—job is to remove waste
from the body.
• Endocrine system—job is to produce
chemicals that help regulate and control the
body, known as hormones.
• Reproductive system—job is to produce
offspring to ensure the species doesn’t die
• Lymphatic/Immune system—job is to keep
the body healthy and remove pathogens.
• Integumentary system—job is to protect
the body from danger.
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