Emotions, attitudes and communication GU, IPC, HT08 Bilyana Martinovski Semiotic conditions • Perception • Senses: smell, vision, hearing, taste and touch • The architecture and functions of the brain • Experiences • Cognitive system: think, feel • Cultural conceptual systems Theories and models about emotion • Darwinism, biology, physiology • (William) Jamesianism, psychology, neurology • Cognitivism • Social constructivism, anthropology, sociology Darwin, Ekman biology, physiology • Survival value, evolution, adaptation role • Expression of feelings • Universalism • Other species have it Cognitivism Plato, Descartes, Arnold reason, will, appetite ‘I think therefore I am’ Appraisal theory – Not deliberate, ‘direct, immediate, non-reflective, non-intellectual, and automatic’ – How one thinks about something may influence what feelings come up – Lazarus’ coping strategies Social constructivism anthropology and sociology James Averill and Rom Harre; Handbook of emotion, Lewis&Haviland, 1993 Emotions are social and cultural constructions, products that have meaning thanks to social rules Emotion and prosody, Abelin and Allwood • Intention and interpretation do not coincide always • Some emotions can be recognized easier independently of culture and language, ie they are more universal • One recognizes emotions more correctly in ones own language ie universalism is limited • Some emotional expressions have similar acoustic features – Anger: - continuity, + intensity – Fear: + continuity, - intensity James, Damasio psychology, neurology • Experiences of feelings • Conditions of the body influence and cause emotions, which in turn influence thinking Damasio: Descartes' Error Phineas Gage: - impaired ability to feel emotion - intelligence remained intact after the accident - severely handicapped ability to take rational decisions Damasio: - emotions could no longer be engaged in the decision process - rationality stems from our emotions - our emotions stem from our bodily senses - state of mind is identical to state of feeling, which is a reflection of state of body Privileged Limbic System Neuroscientists such as Uexkull (1934), Fuster (2003), and Arnold Scheibel (2006) observe that evolution gave privilege to the limbic system: emotional feedback is present in lower species, but other cortical cognitive feedback is present only in higher species. Theories of Mind (ToM) • Imitation - we reason about others’ states of mind by imitation, mirror neurons (Rizzolatti and Craighero, 2004; Iacoboni, 2005) • Simulation - we reason about others’ states of mind by simulation (Goldman, 1989) • Representation - we reason about others’ states of mind by use of common-sense representations (Hobbs and Gordon, 2004) Three Layered ‘Mind Minding’ Model (M) of Interlocutor’s Goals, Beliefs, Desires, Memories, and Emotional States (BGDME) Integrated Theory of Mind: Hypotheses • Embodied ToM - mental states take input from emotional state, which take input from body states • ToM is expected in many species • Imitation, simulation and representation are evolutionary stages of cognitive and emotive development • Contemporary Homo Sapiens uses all three ToM processes • Theories of Mind have linguistic-pragmatic manifestation in discourse Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain, 1994 Damasio explores in depth the unusual case of Phineas Gage, a man whose ability to feel emotion was damaged after an accident destroyed part of his brain. Specifically, he demonstrates that, while Gage's intelligence remained intact after the accident, his ability to make rational decisions and to reason became severely handicapped because his emotions could no longer be engaged in the process. Damasio argues that first, rationality stems from our emotions, and second, that our emotions stem from our bodily senses. The state of the mind, or feeling, is merely a reflection of the state of the body, and feeling is an indispensable ingredient of rational thought. Descartes: Discourse on Method, “I think, therefore I am" The building block upon which he constructed his philosophy of Dualism. In Descartes' approach, thought is the proof of existence; it is the basic truth. Damasio argues that the body is the genesis of thought, that thinking is inherent to a body in which no spirit exists. The fundamental difference in argument situates itself in that thought is a physiological function, based on anatomy making the statement "I think, therefore I am" a repetition. It essentially becomes "I am, therefore I am" when Damasio's principle of the body-mind rather than dualism is applied. This presents the reason why the work is titled Decartes' Error. somatic-marker hypothesis The somatic-marker hypothesis proposes a mechanism by which emotional processes can guide (or bias) behavior, particularly decision-making. Tack!