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Carbohydrates Carbohydrates can be broken down into three categories based on the number of sugars. 1 sugar present is called a monosaccharide. The three main types of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose. 2 sugars present is called a disaccharide. The three main types of disaccharides are sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose) and maltose (glucose + glucose). Multiple sugars connected is called a polysaccharide. List the 4 main types of polysaccharides and their functions: starch (energy storage in plant cells) glycogen (energy storage in animal cells) cellulose (major component in cell walls) chitin (major component in fungus cell walls and exoskeletons of insects). The link that joins sugar molecules together is called a glycosidic linkage. When two molecules are joined together, it is called condensation or dehydration reaction because a water molecule is lost. Draw a rough sketch of what a polysaccharide would look like. Lipids Lipids can be broken down into 4 categories 1. Triglycerides are fats and oils. They contain 3 fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol molecule. They can be saturated, monounsaturated, and poly unsaturated. Saturated fats do not have a double bond, are solids at room temperature, and typically come from animals. An example is butter. Unsaturated fats do have double bonds, are liquids at room temperature, and typically come from plants. An example is vegetable oil. Draw the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fat. 2. Phospholipids consist of 2 fatty acid chains and 1 phosphate group attached to a glycerol molecule. It has a polar and a nonpolar region making it amphipathic. Phospholipids make up our cell membranes. Draw what a phospholipid looks like. 3. Steroids are 4 linked carbon rings. They consist of cholesterol and certain hormones. Draw what a steroid looks like. 4. Waxes are used for protection. Proteins Proteins have a variety of functions. Some functions include structural, storage, transport, defensive, signaling, and enzymes. Proteins are made up of monomers called amino acids and through peptide bonds create polymers called polypeptides. There are 4 levels of protein structure. For each level, write a brief description and draw a rough sketch of what that level of structure looks like. Primary order of amino acids Secondary basic 3D shape that results from hydrogen bonding interactions on the ends of the polypeptide chain. Can be alpha helix or beta sheet. Proteins whose shape are dominated by this interaction are called fibrous. Tertiary more advanced 3D shape that results from interactions of other amino acids besides the ends. Includes hydrogen bonding, ionic bonding, hydrophobic effect, and disulfide bonds. Quaternary a protein where multiple polypeptides join together. A classic example is hemoglobin. Nucleic Acids The two main types of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA. They are each polymers made up from the monomer of a nucleotide. A nucleotide consists of 3 parts: nitrogen base, a five carbon sugar, and a phosphate group. There are 5 types of bases. The purines are two ring structures and include adenine and guanine. The pyrimidines are one ring structures and include uracil, thymine, and cytosine. Draw the difference between a purine and pyrimidine below. Be sure to include all parts of the nucleotide. The 3 ways in which DNA/RNA differ is that 1. Sugar in RNA is ribose, in DNA it is deoxyribose 2. Thymine in RNA is replaced by uracil 3. RNA is normally single stranded while DNA is usually in a double helix. Draw a DNA molecule vs. an RNA molecule, ensuring to highlight these differences.