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Transcript
Using Cleaner Production to
Facilitate the Implementation of
Multilateral Environmental
Agreements
1
Focus on Specific MEAs:
UN Framework Convention on
Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol
Wanna Tanunchaiwatana
UNFCCC Secretariat
2
Contents
• Overview of the UNFCCC and KP
• Mechanisms for Implementation
• CDM and Technology Information
System
• Potential Activities for CP Centres
• Possible Roles of NCPCs
3
UNFCCC - Overview
• A global legal instrument on the control and
management of greenhouse gases (GHG) which are
not controlled by the Montreal Protocol
• Adopted: 1992; Entered into force:1994
• Status of participation: 186 Parties
• Contains 2 Annexes:
– Annex 1: countries with obligations to reduce GHG
– Annex 2: countries with funding obligations
• Affiliated instruments:
– Kyoto Protocol
4
Kyoto Protocol (KP)
– Commitments: industrialized countries to
achieve quantified targets for decreasing their
greenhouse gas emissions
– Adopted: 1997; not yet in force;
– Status of Ratification: 94 Parties, but only
37.1% of global GHG emissions; 55% needed
for Protocol to enter into force (as of 17 Sept.
2002)
5
Ultimate Objective of the UNFCCC
• To achieve stabilisation of greenhouse gas
concentrations in the atmosphere at a level
that would prevent dangerous
anthropogenic interference with the climate
system
6
Annex A of KP
• Greenhouse gases:
– Carbon dioxide (CO2)
– Methane (CH4)
– Nitrous Oxide (NO2)
– Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
– Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
– Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
– Importance of each gas is based on Global Warming
Potential (GWP)
7
Sectors/Source Categories - Annex A (KP)
• Energy
– fuel combustion (energy industries, manufacturing, etc.)
– fugitive emissions (oil/natural gas, solid fuels, etc.)
• Industrial Processes
– mineral products, chemical industry, metal production,
other production, production and consumption of
halocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride
• Solvent and other product use
• Agriculture
• Waste
8
Constituted Bodies (I)
• Conference of the Parties (COP): the supreme body
of the Convention, shall keep under regular review the
implementation of the Convention and any related
legal instrument that the COP may adopt, and meet
annually. COP-8 will be held on 23 October 2 November 2002, in New Delhi, India.
• Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological
Advice (SBSTA): provide advice to the COP on scientific
and technological matters relating to the Convention.
9
Constituted Bodies (II)
• Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI): to
assist the COP in the review and assessment of the
effective implementation of the Convention.
• Relevant international and national bodies:
– Global Environment Facility (GEF) - the operating
entity of the financial mechanism of the Convention
– Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
– National UNFCCC focal points
– National designated CDM authorities
10
Mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol
• Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) developing country Parties can volunteer to reduce
emissions via joint activities with developed country
Parties (Art. 12)
• Joint Implementation - Article 6 projects
between developed country Parties
• Emissions trading - can be used as supplementary to
actions to meet reduction commitments between developed
country Parties
11
Financial Provisions
– Special Climate Change Fund (UNFCCC) - will fund
projects relating to capacity building, technology
transfer, climate change mitigation activities, economic
diversification for countries highly dependent on fossil
fuel
– Least developed countries Fund (UNFCCC) - will
fund a special work programme to assist LDCs
– Adaptation Fund (KP)
– GEF is the operating entity of the financial mechanism
and the main funding channel for developing countries
12
Clean Development Mechanism
• Goals of CDM:
– to promote sustainable development while
minimizing the cost of limiting GHG emissions;
– to contribute to the attainment of objective of the
Convention;
– to assist developed country Parties in complying
with their KP commitments
13
Clean Development Mechanism
• How it works:
– projects to assist the host country to achieve
national sustainable development goal;
– projects emissions have to be below approved
baseline;
– project monitoring in accordance with
approved plan
– CERs are verified and certified by accredited body
14
Clean Development Mechanism
• How it works:
– CERs are verified and certified by
accredited body
– CERs are transferred to the investment
country (developed country Party/Annex
B Party)
15
Clean Development Mechanism
Operational Entities
• On 20 August 2002, the CDM Executive Board
has announced that companies and other
organizations may now start applying for
accreditation as “operational entities” of the
CDM;
• The operational entities will play a crucial role by
checking whether projects confirm with the
CDM’s rules;
16
17
Technology Information System
• In order to address the needs of information
on environmentally sound technologies, the
Convention secretariat has designed and
developed a web-based technology transfer
information system/clearing house
(TT:CLEAR).
18
Characteristic I
• Targets experts from all stakeholders involved in
the process of technology transfer.
• Complements and works with existing web sites
and clearing houses of other relevant international
organizations and national/regional technology
information centres.
• It has the potential to act as a gateway for fast
access to up-to-date information on the latest
technology transfer projects and case studies of
successful technology transfer, environmentally
sound technologies and know-how.
19
Characteristic II
• Includes an
innovative
search engine
20
Contents
• Inventory of technology cooperation projects.
• The inventory contains at present some 1,650
projects and programmes, including :
– Projects cited in National Communications of Annex
I Parties;
– Projects cited in initial national communications of
Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention;
– Projects cited in submissions from Parties within the
consultative process
21
– Activities Implemented Jointly projects;
– Global Environmental Facility: climate
projects and programmes;
– Some bilateral projects not reported in
national communications of Annex I Parties,
– Some multilateral projects and programmes
such as non-GEF related activities of UNEP,
UNDP, UNIDO, regional development banks
and other multilateral implementing
agencies;
22



Over 40 case studies and/or success stories on
technology transfer*;
600 links to relevant web sites, including
national web sites as provided by Parties in
their submissions;
An inventory of methods, models and tools
covering different aspects of mitigation of and
adaptation to climate change;
23
 A database
of organizations and experts
involved in the development and transfer of
technologies;
 Preliminary
databases of mitigation and
adaptation technologies;
 A technology
forum, including a web board
and chat rooms.
 Information
on development and transfer of
technologies under UNFCCC
24
HOW TO ACCESS TT:CLEAR
• 1. Go to http://ttclear.unfccc.int
• 2. Register.
• 3. Wait for the
activation of your
account.
A confirmation
e-mail will be sent
to you.
25
Potential Activities for CP Centres
• UNFCCC Implementation
– submit projects to GEF under its climate change focal area
through national operational focal point of GEF within the
government
– actively engage in technology needs assessments project
with the national focal point of the UNFCCC
• KP implementation
– propose CDM projects
– Raise awareness of CDM opportunities among
local key industries
26
Summary: develop an action plan
• Possible Roles of the NCPCs
27
28