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Transcript
Focus on: the Framework
Convention on Climate Change
and Kyoto Protocol
Control and reduction of greenhouse
gas (GHG) emissions
1
Using Cleaner Production to facilitate
implementation of the Framework
Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC)
Activities for National Cleaner
Production Centres
6
UNFCCC - Overview




A global legal instrument on the control and
management of greenhouse gases (GHG) which are
not controlled by the Montreal Protocol
Adopted: 1992; Entered into force:1994
Status of participation: 186 Parties
Contains 2 Annexes:
–
–

Annex 1: countries with obligations to reduce GHG
Annex 2: countries with funding obligations
Affiliated instruments:
–
Kyoto Protocol
7
Affiliated Instruments - Detail

Kyoto Protocol (KP)
–
commits industrialized countries to achieve quantified
targets for decreasing their greenhouse gas emissions
–
Adopted: 1997; not yet in force
–
Status of Participation: 77 parties, but only 36% of
global GHG emissions; 55% needed for protocol to
enter into force
–
Contains 2 Annexes:

Annex A: outlines gases and sources targeted for reduction

Annex B: specific reduction amounts for specific countries
8
Goal and objectives (UNFCCC & KP)

Overall goal: to protect the climate system for the benefit of
present and future generations of mankind

Further objectives:
–
to achieve stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the
atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous
anthropogenic interference with the climate system through:




enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors and
development of new and renewable energy forms/sources
protection of sinks and reservoirs of GHGs
limitation and reduction of transport and waste managementrelated emissions
policy changes toward elimination of market imperfections and
implementation of market-based instruments, and policy reform to
support GHG limits and reductions
9
Definitions (1)

Greenhouse gases: those gaseous constituents of the
atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and reemit infrared radiation (i.e. CO2, CH4, etc.)

Sinks: activities or processes that remove GHGs from the
atmosphere (e.g. reforestation, aforestation)

Emission Reduction Units (ERUs): credits added to
Annex B parties’ emission reduction totals through activities
implemented jointly (AIJ) with Annex 1 parties of UNFCCC

Certified Emission Reductions (CERs): credits added to
Annex B parties’ emission reduction totals through activities
implemented via the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in
partnership with non-Annex 1 parties
10
Definitions (2)

Annex A gases (KP):
–
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
–
Methane (CH4)
–
Nitrous Oxide (NO2)
–
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
–
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
–
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
–
Importance of each gas is based on Global Warming Potential (GWP)
11
Global Warming Potential (GWP)

the ratio of global warming, from one unit mass of a greenhouse gas to
that of one unit mass of carbon dioxide over a period of time.
–
Carbon dioxide (CO2) 1 [baseline]
–
Methane (CH4)*
–
Nitrous oxide (N2O) 310
- HFC-4310mee 1,300
–
HFC-23
11,700
- CF4
6,500
–
HFC-125
2,800
- C2F6
9,200
–
HFC-134a
1,300
- C4F10
7,000
–
HFC-143a
3,800
- C6F14
7,400
–
HFC-152a
140
- SF6
23,900
–
HFC-227ea
2,900
21
- HFC-236fa
6,300
12
Sectors/Source Categories - Annex A (KP)

Energy
–
–

Industrial Processes
–



fuel combustion (energy industries, manufacturing, etc.)
fugitive emissions (oil/natural gas, solid fuels, etc.)
mineral products, chemical industry, metal production, other
production, production and consumption of halocarbons and
sulphur hexafluoride
Solvent and other product use
Agriculture
Waste
–
solid waste disposal, incineration, wastewater handling
13
Implementation actors (1)



Conference of Parties: Main governing and decision-making
body, facilitate information exchange and activities implemented
jointly (AIJ). Meetings are held every year. COP-7 held in Nov
2001, in Morocco
Secretariat: serves bodies of both the UNFCCC and KP,
provides implementation assistance to parties
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice:
links scientific, technical and technological assessments, the
information provided by competent international bodies, and the
policy-oriented needs of the COP
14
Implementation actors (2)



Subsidiary Body for Implementation: develop
recommendations to assist the COP in the review and assessment
of the implementation of the Convention and in the preparation
and implementation of its decisions
Joint Working Group on Compliance (JWG): develop
procedures and mechanisms relating to a compliance system
Relevant international bodies:
–
–
–
–
Global Environment Facility (GEF) - financing of projects
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - research on
climate change measurement and impacts
National UNFCCC focal points
National CDM authorities
15
Implementation mechanisms (UNFCCC & KP)

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) - developing
country parties can volunteer to reduce emissions via joint
activities with developed country parties

Joint Implementation - activities implemented jointly
between developed country parties

Emissions trading - can be used as supplementary to
actions to meet reduction commitments
16
Implementation mechanisms (UNFCCC & KP)

Financial assistance:
–
Special Climate Change Fund (UNFCCC) - will fund
projects relating to capacity building, adaptation, tech transfer,
climate change mitigation, economic diversification for
countries highly dependent on fossil fuel
–
Least developed countries Fund (UNFCCC) - will fund a
special work programme to assist LDCs
–
Adaptation Fund (KP)
–
GEF is the operating entity of the financial mechanism
and the main funding channel for developing countries
17
Implementation mechanisms (UNFCCC & KP)

National reporting of GHG emissions

Sources of technical assistance

Training and technology transfer

Ensuring compliance: penalties for not meeting
reduction targets (Annex II countries [UNFCCC])
–
for every 1 ton of CO2 emissions of non-compliance
during the first implementation period, 1.3 must be
reduced during the following implementation period
18
Key Opportunities for Developing Countries
& Countries with Economies in Transition

No GHG reduction commitments (except for
Slovakia, Czech Rep., Hungary, and some others)

opportunity to engage in Clean Development
Mechanism / Joint implementation projects
–
–
–
–
attract new technology and investment
contribute towards KP implementation
achieve sustainable development
prepare for future commitment periods
19
GHG sources in Developing Countries &
Countries with Economies in Transition

energy sector
–
from 24~48% of total GHG



industrial processes
–
from 5~36% of total GHG


includes, inter alia, manufacturing, construction, transport
primarily CO2
primarily CO2 and VOC
waste management
–
from 0.3~9% of total GHG
primarily CH4
From UNIDO, 2002 - Country Reports


20
Clean Development Mechanism - Detail (1)

CDM is a essentially a market:
–
–
–

the product is certified emission reduction credit - CER
demanded by Annex I parties
supplied by developing country parties to KP
3 goals of CDM:
–
–
–
to assist in the achievement of sustainable development
to contribute to the attainment of environmental goals
of the UNFCCC
to assist Annex I parties in complying with their
emissions reduction commitments
21
Clean Development Mechanism - Detail (2)

How it works
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
project acceptance based on selected criteria (not yet
determined)
baseline of GHG emissions is measured
‘additionality’ examined (incl. “leakages”)
project monitoring, assessment
final audit certifying CERs and follow-up assessments
resultant CERs are added to Annex B party portfolio
partner country receives benefits of technology transfer
22
Clean Development Mechanism - Detail (3)

Barriers to entry for developing countries (1)
–
UNIDO studies (2002) from 5 countries reports the
following barriers:




absence of CDM national authority
inadequacy of perception and awareness on climate
change in general
lack of industry knowledge of relevant energy efficiency
technologies
lack of laws and regulations for implementation; lack of
investment regulations for CDM project investment
23
Clean Development Mechanism - Detail (4)
–
Barriers to entry for developing countries (2)



government budgets for CDM project implementation is
small; foreign financing is at a beginning stage
insufficient government awareness and legal
infrastructure
rigidity in financing climate-sound projects because of
strict business regulations and goals (e.g. financial
returns over environmental goals)
24
Clean Development Mechanism - Detail (5)

Potential Supply-side projects under CDM
–
from Philippines country study (UNIDO 2002)






fuel switching from coal to natural gas
use of renewable energy
use of fuel cells
system loss reduction
heat rate improvements
clean coal technologies
25
Clean Development Mechanism - Detail (6)

Potential Demand-side projects under CDM
–
from Philippines country study (UNIDO 2002)





–
compact fluorescent lamps
energy efficient window-type room air conditioners
energy efficient refrigerators
high-efficiency motors
efficiency improvement in fuel combustion processes
specific projects detailed in training manual


UNIDO 2002 - Indonesia country report
UNEP 2002 - Carbon Offset Opportunities
26
Cleaner Production in the UNFCCC

Preamble
–

Principles
–

“Parties should take precautionary measures to anticipate, prevent or
minimize the causes of climate change and mitigate its adverse effects”
Commitments
–

“various actions to address climate change can be justified economically in
their own right and can also help in solving other environmental problems”
- the win-win scenario which Cleaner Production offers
Parties…shall promote and cooperate in the development, application and
diffusion, including transfer, of technologies, practices and processes that
control, reduce or prevent anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases.
A recurring theme in the texts is that measures which have as little
negative impact as possible in economic terms should be undertaken
27
Potential Activities for CP Centres
to facilitate implementation of
the UNFCCC and KP
28
CP Centres - Areas of intervention


Enabling activities - overcoming barriers
–
work with government
–
work with industry
KP implementation
–

work with CDM projects
Follow up and preparation for next stages
–
auditing and on-going verification
29
Enabling Activities - Working with government

public sector awareness and education on climate change, in coordination with National UNFCCC focal point

public sector awareness and education on opportunities for key
local industries

policy advice related to industries’ needs to enable Clean
Development Mechanism projects, in co-ordination with
National CDM authority

assistance in formulation of national implementation
programmes (i.e. inventories, needs, priorities, dialogue, etc.)

implementation of projects (pilot and full-scale) with measures
to mitigate climate change
30
Enabling Activities - Working with industry

private sector awareness and education workshops related
to climate change, in co-ordination with National UNFCCC
focal point

private sector awareness and education workshops on
CDM, in co-ordination with National CDM authority

continued emphasis on enhancement of energy efficiency in
relevant sectors including GHG measurements

promotion, application and diffusion of technologies,
practices and processes that control, reduce or prevent
GHG emissions in addition to energy efficiency measures
31
Kyoto Protocol Implementation

Build relationship with National CDM authority
–
–
–

co-operation on awareness-raising, workshops
co-operation with policy advice to government
co-operation with pilot studies, projects
Develop projects with industry
–
–
integrate greenhouse gas calculations into in-plant assessments
transfer CP investment financing knowledge toward CDM related
project development for:




renewable energy sources
energy conversion and recovery
new energy efficient processes
technology transfer for non-energy-related GHG reductions
32
Follow-up and planning for next stage

seek CDM project auditor status

industry feedback regarding upcoming reduction
commitments
–
next round of negotiations may involve reductions for
newly industrialized parties with high GHG releases
(e.g. China, India, etc.)
33
Questions to consider





What are your country’s opportunities under the
Convention?
What are your nation’s priority energy issues and
related industry sectors?
What kind of expertise/services do you have to
offer in regard to your country’s implementation
priorities?
What kind of necessary expertise/services you can
obtain from the NCPC network?
What kind of financial assistance can your country
qualify for in order to implement projects under
the Convention?
34
Summary: develop an action plan


Collect information
Define competitive advantages
–

Organise meetings/seminars/workshops
–

co-ordinate with the Convention implementation bodies to exchange
information and experiences and build capacity
Develop joint projects and training programs
–

experience of work in the priority sectors, existence of developed
methodologies for addressing the priority waste streams, successful
training initiatives, trust of the main industry actors,etc.
relate to national priorities under the Convention and Protocol
Explore funding opportunities
–
consider other UNFCCC and KP financing mechanisms
35
Useful information sources






UNFCCC website: unfccc.int
UNEP DTIE: www.uneptie.org/energy
UNIDO: www.unido.org/doc/310797.htmls
The UNFCCC / Kyoto Protocol Secretariat
National focal points and CDM authorities
in your country
National Ministry of Environment
36