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Transcript
1. Commitments of the
states under the UNFCCC
2. International climate
change financial
mechanisms
© 2006 UNDP. All Rights Reserved
Worldwide.
Proprietary and Confidential. Not For
Distribution Without Prior Written
Permission.
Daniela Stoycheva – UNDP BRC
climate change policy advisor
Climate Change Fundamentals and Local Action, September 19-22, 2011
Commitments under the UNFCCC
The ultimate objective: to achieve stabilization of GHG
concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent
dangerous interference with the climate system, within a time
frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to CC, to
ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable
economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner
Actions - formulate, implement, publish and regularly update
national and, where appropriate, regional programmes
containing measures to mitigate CC, and measures to facilitate
adequate adaptation to CC. Cooperation.
Reporting - GHG inventories and National Communication
The developed country Parties shall provide new and additional
financial resources to developing country Parties
1 1
Commitments under the Kyoto Protocol
Objective: The Parties included in Annex I - reducing their
overall emissions of GHG gases by at least 5 % below 1990
levels in the commitment period 2008 to 2012. Annex B
Actions: Implement and/or further elaborate mitigation policies
and measures in accordance with their national circumstances
(EITs – may use other base year)
Cooperate to enhance the effectiveness and share experience
Reporting: National reporting system
Opportunities: emissions trading mechanisms (flexible
mechanisms)
2 2
Subsequent major agreements
Negotiating a comprehensive framework for enhanced action on CC
Bali Action Plan – 2007 - “two-track” approach; AWGs; building blocks
• A shared vision for long-term cooperative action
• Enhanced national and international action on mitigation of cc, incl. NAMAs for
developing countries, LEDS
• Enhanced action on adaptation
• Enhanced action on technology development and transfer to support action on
M&A
• Enhanced action on financial resources to support above actions
Copenhagen Accords – 2009 - political declaration
Cancun Agreement - 2010 - laying the foundation to tackle CC through a
new post-2012 regime; a number of institutional mechanisms were
established, in place WGs to develop the details of operationalization of the
mechanisms to be agreed in Durban, incl. Green Climate Fund. SCP?
Durban COP 17 – 2011 – a global legally binding agreement?
3 3
New green growth paradigm
• The World’s population is growing quickly ( it is expected to
expand from 7 billion today to an estimated 9 billion by 2050)
• This will be accompanied by growth in demand for natural
resources, energy, food, water and other commodities
• Need for a new green growth paradigm that supports more
sustainable local and global livelihoods and economies
• Climate change adds urgency to this transformation (emission
reduction pledges under the Cancun Agreements reach only 60% of what is
required to hold the increase in global temperature below 2° C)
• Emissions would need to be 50% below 1990 levels in 2050,
and be zero or negative by 2100
4 4
Low-emission Development Strategies
• Interest to explore pathways for LED growing rapidly. > 90
countries registered their NAMAs with the UNFCCC (51
developing countries, 25% of which are low-income countries). RBEC –
regional project: Kazakhstan, Moldova, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan
• Numerous agencies, donors, academic institutions and
private consultants have begun to undertake research and
provide analytical and advisory services and capacity building
on LED
• Low emissions development policies are one component of
SD or Green Growth, which spans a larger set of environmental
and social policies, including climate resilience and disaster risk
reduction, improvements in natural asset management,
biodiversity and water and air pollution management.
5 5
Finance Needs to achieve transition are huge, but possible to achieve
1. 10.5 trillion for low emission energy infrastructure by 2030; 4
– 109 billion/year for adaptation; 60 billion/year in incremental
cost funding by 2020 for mitigation actions needed for 20 C
pathways; Less than fossil fuel subsidies: 312 billion in 2009
2. Substantial upfront costs, but attractive commercial returns –
energy bills reduced by over 8.6 trillion; savings from air
pollution 100 billion
3. IEA: the global additional investment needed in 2020 will
come from: 40% households, 40% businesses, 20%
governments
4. 200 billion /year for ecosystem and climate finance
committed
6
Proliferation of sources of climate change finance
Global Environment Trust Funds
• GEF Trust Fund
•SCCF, LDCF, Adaptation Fund
$6 - 9 billion
Multi/bilateral funds
•WB: CIF
•Germany ICI
$15 billion
New UNFCCC Related Funds
•Fast Start funding
•Green Climate Fund
$280 billion
Market based & Innovative Sources of Financing
•Carbon Finance (CDM/JI, VCM, sectoral credit + financing)
•Insurance + other risk financing
$75-150 billion
7
Key Environmental Finance Challenges faced by developing countries
• Access new and innovative sources for climate and
ecosystem finance
• Promote synergies between development, climate and
ecosystem finance
• Use limited sources of public finance to catalyze much larger
private flows
8 8
Thank you for your
attention!
[email protected]
9 9