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Transcript
Ms. Mezzetti
Lynn English High School
Science Department
Define biochemistry
What does “Chemistry
of Life” mean?
Objectives:
Students will be able to:
Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds.
Explain the importance of carbon bonding in biological
molecules.
Summarize how large carbon molecules are synthesized and
broken down.
Describe how the breaking down of ATP supplies energy to drive
chemical reactions.
Carbon Bonding
Organic compounds contain carbon atoms and
are found in living things.
Most inorganic compounds do not contain
carbon atoms.
Carbon Bonding
•
•
Carbon atoms can
form four covalent
bonds with other
atoms including other
carbon atoms.
The carbon bonds
allow the carbon atoms
to form a wide variety
of simple and complex
organic compounds.
Condensation Reactions
remove water and
combine monomers to
make polymers
Hydrolysis break down
polymers into smaller
macromolecules and
monomer
Energy for life
• Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stores and releases energy
during cell processes, enabling organisms to function.
Organic Molecules
Objectives:
Students will be able to:
Distinguish 3 types of carbohydrates-monosaccharides,
disaccharides and polysaccharides.
Explain how enzymes are a type of protein ande catalyze
chemical reactions.
Identify the monomers and polymers carbohydrates,
proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
Describe the induced fit model of enzyme action.
Compare the nucleic acids DNA and RNA.
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are organic
compounds that are:
composed of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen in
a ratio of about one
carbon to two hydrogen
atoms to one oxygen
atom. CH2O end in ‘ose
Carbohydrates are a
source of energy and are
used as structural
materials in organisms.
Carbohydrates
• Monosaccharide's
– Carbohydrates are made up of monomers called
monosaccharide's, simple sugars such as glucose
• Disaccharides
-- Two monosaccharide's join to form a double
sugar called a disaccharide such as sucrose (glucose
+ fructose)
• Polysaccharides
--Three or more monosaccharide's join to form
large macromolecules such as starches, cellulose,
chitin & glycogen. These are complex
carbohydrates
Proteins
• Proteins are organic compounds
composed mainly of carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
C-H-O-N
• Proteins have many functions
including structural-muscle fibercollagen-keratin, defensiveantibodies, and catalytic rolesenzymes.
• Found in
Proteins
• Amino Acids: Proteins are made up of
monomers called amino acids. The
sequence of amino acids determines a
protein’s shape and function. There are 20
different types identified by their R group.
• Dipeptides: Two amino acids are joined by
peptide bonds to form a dipeptide.
• Polypeptides: A long chain of amino acids
is called a polypeptide.
Structure of Proteins
Proteins
• Enzymes
– Enzymes are globular proteins that speed up chemical
reactions and bind to specific substrates.
– The binding of a substrate with an enzyme causes a
change in the enzyme’s shape and reduces the
activation energy of the reaction.
Enzyme Activity
Lipids
• Lipids are nonpolar
molecules that store
energy and are an
important part of cell
membranes.
• Fats are lipids
• They can be saturated
(animal fat/solids/lard) or
unsaturated (fats from
plants-oils/liquid)
Lipids
• Fatty Acids-building blocks of
lipids (monomers)
– Most lipids contain fatty
acids, unbranched
carbon molecules that
have a hydrophilic end
and a hydrophobic end.
• Triglycerides
– Triglycerides consist of
three fatty acids and one
molecule of glycerol.
Lipids
• Phospholipids: make up cell
membranes, consist of two
fatty acids and one glycerol
molecule.
• Waxes: A wax is made of one
long fatty acid chain joined to
one long alcohol. Protect
animal ears and plant leaves.
• Steroids: A steroid is a lipid
composed of four fused
carbon rings.
Nucleic Acids
• A nucleic acid is a large and
complex organic molecule
that stores and transports
information.
• The monomers, building
blocks of nucleic acids are
nucleotides.
• DNA contains deoxyribose,
nitrogenous base and a
phosphate group
• RNA contains ribose
NUCLEOTIDE
Nucleic Acids
• The nucleic acid
deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA) contains genetic
information for cell
activities.
• Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
molecules play many key
roles in building of
proteins and can act as
enzymes.
Structure of Nucleic Acids
Multiple Choice
1. Which of the following is not a function of
polysaccharides?
A. energy source
B. energy storage
C. structural support
D. storage of genetic information
Multiple Choice, continued
2. Which of the following statements is false?
F. A wax is a lipid.
G. Starch is a lipid.
H. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature.
J. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room
temperature.
Multiple Choice, continued
3. Which of the following molecules stores
hereditary information?
A. ATP
B. DNA
C. protein
D. carbohydrates
Multiple Choice, continued
4. What is the name of the molecule in plants that
stores sugars?
A. starch
B. protein
C. cellulose
D. glycogen
Multiple Choice, continued
The figure below illustrates
the basic structure of a cell
membrane. Use the
figure to answer the questions
that follow.
5. Which of the following
molecules make up the basic
structure of a cell
membrane?
A. waxes
B. steroids
C. fatty acids
D. phospholipids
Multiple Choice, continued
The figure below illustrates
the basic structure of a cell
membrane. Use the
figure to answer the questions
that follow.
6. The “tails” of the molecules in
the figure orient away from
water. Which of the following
describes the tail’s movement
away from water?
F. polar
G. adhesive
H. hydrophilic
J. hydrophobic
Multiple Choice, continued
7. simple sugars : carbohydrates :: amino acids :
A. lipids
B. proteins
C. nucleic acids
D. amino acids
Short Response, continued
Proteins are affected by environmental conditions such as
heat and pH.
Explain why the process of cooking an egg cannot be
reversed.
Answer:
The heat that is added to the egg changes the bonds in
the proteins and other molecules that make up the egg to
such a large extent that the original protein shape can no
longer be distinguished.
Open Response
Enzymes are essential for the functioning of all cells.
Part A Explain what enzymes do that is essential for cell
function.
Part B Explain the induced fit model of enzyme
action.
Answer:
Part A Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions that are involved
in important cell processes.
Part B Bonding of the substrates to enzymes causes a slight
change in the enzyme’s shape, thereby weakening some of
the bonds and lowering activation energy.