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Transcript
PowerPoint® Lecture Slides
prepared by
Janice Meeking,
Mount Royal College
CHAPTER
3
Cells: The
Living Units:
Part A
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cell Theory
• The cell is the smallest structural and
functional living unit
• Organismal functions depend on individual
and collective cell functions
• Biochemical activities of cells are dictated by
their specific subcellular structures
• Continuity of life has a cellular basis
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Developmental Aspects of Cells
• All cells of the body contain the same DNA but are
not identical
• Chemical signals in the embryo channel cells into
specific developmental pathways by turning some
genes off
• Development of specific and distinctive features in
cells is called cell differentiation
• Elimination of excess, injured, or aged cells occurs
through programmed rapid cell death (apoptosis)
followed by phagocytosis
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Theories of Cell Aging
• Wear and tear theory: Little chemical insults
and free radicals have cumulative effects
• Immune system disorders: Autoimmune
responses and progressive weakening of the
immune response
• Genetic theory: Cessation of mitosis and cell
aging are programmed into genes. Telomeres
(strings of nucleotides on the ends of
chromosomes) may determine the number of
times a cell can divide.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Generalized Cell
• All cells have some common structures and
functions
• Human cells have three basic parts:
• Plasma membrane—flexible outer boundary
• Cytoplasm—intracellular fluid containing
organelles
• Nucleus—control center
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chromatin
Nucleolus
Nuclear envelope
Nucleus
Smooth endoplasmic
reticulum
Mitochondrion
Cytosol
Lysosome
Centrioles
Centrosome
matrix
Cytoskeletal
elements
• Microtubule
• Intermediate
filaments
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Plasma
membrane
Rough
endoplasmic
reticulum
Ribosomes
Golgi apparatus
Secretion being
released from cell
by exocytosis
Peroxisome
Figure 3.2
Plasma Membrane
• Bimolecular layer of lipids and proteins in a
constantly changing fluid mosaic
• Plays a dynamic role in cellular activity
• Separates intracellular fluid (ICF) from
extracellular fluid (ECF)
• Interstitial fluid (IF) = ECF that surrounds cells
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Extracellular Materials
• Body fluids (interstitial fluid, blood plasma,
and cerebrospinal fluid)
• Cellular secretions (intestinal and gastric
fluids, saliva, mucus, and serous fluids)
• Extracellular matrix (abundant jellylike mesh
containing proteins and polysaccharides in
contact with cells)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Extracellular fluid
(watery environment)
Polar head of
phospholipid
molecule
Cholesterol
Glycolipid
Glycoprotein
Carbohydrate
of glycocalyx
Outwardfacing
layer of
phospholipids
Integral
proteins
Filament of
cytoskeleton
Peripheral
Bimolecular
Inward-facing
proteins
lipid layer
layer of
containing
phospholipids
Nonpolar
proteins
tail of
phospholipid
Cytoplasm
molecule
(watery environment)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 3.3
Membrane Lipids
• 75% phospholipids (lipid bilayer)
• Phosphate heads: polar and hydrophilic
• Fatty acid tails: nonpolar and hydrophobic (Review
Fig. 2.16b)
• 5% glycolipids
• Lipids with polar sugar groups on outer membrane
surface
• 20% cholesterol
• Increases membrane stability and fluidity
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Functions of Membrane Proteins
1. Transport
2. Receptors for signal transduction
3. Attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular
matrix
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
(a) Transport
A protein (left) that spans the membrane
may provide a hydrophilic channel across
the membrane that is selective for a
particular solute. Some transport proteins
(right) hydrolyze ATP as an energy source
to actively pump substances across the
membrane.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 3.4a
Signal
Receptor
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
(b) Receptors for signal transduction
A membrane protein exposed to the
outside of the cell may have a binding
site with a specific shape that fits the
shape of a chemical messenger, such
as a hormone. The external signal may
cause a change in shape in the protein
that initiates a chain of chemical
reactions in the cell.
Figure 3.4b
(c) Attachment to the cytoskeleton
and extracellular matrix (ECM)
Elements of the cytoskeleton (cell’s
internal supports) and the extracellular
matrix (fibers and other substances
outside the cell) may be anchored to
membrane proteins, which help maintain
cell shape and fix the location of certain
membrane proteins. Others play a role in
cell movement or bind adjacent cells
together.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 3.4c
Functions of Membrane Proteins
4. Enzymatic activity
5. Intercellular joining
6. Cell-cell recognition
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
(d) Enzymatic activity
Enzymes
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
A protein built into the membrane may
be an enzyme with its active site
exposed to substances in the adjacent
solution. In some cases, several
enzymes in a membrane act as a team
that catalyzes sequential steps of a
metabolic pathway as indicated (left to
right) here.
Figure 3.4d
(e) Intercellular joining
Membrane proteins of adjacent cells
may be hooked together in various
kinds of intercellular junctions. Some
membrane proteins (CAMs) of this
group provide temporary binding sites
that guide cell migration and other
cell-to-cell interactions.
CAMs
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 3.4e
(f) Cell-cell recognition
Some glycoproteins (proteins bonded
to short chains of sugars) serve as
identification tags that are specifically
recognized by other cells.
Glycoprotein
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 3.4f
Membrane Transport
• Plasma membranes are selectively permeable
• Some molecules easily pass through the
membrane; others do not
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Types of Membrane Transport
• Passive processes
• No cellular energy (ATP) required
• Substance moves down its concentration
gradient
• Active processes
• Energy (ATP) required
• Occurs only in living cell membranes
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Passive Processes
•
What determines whether or not a
substance can passively permeate a
membrane?
1. Lipid solubility of substance
2. Channels of appropriate size
3. Carrier proteins
PLAY
Animation: Membrane Permeability
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Passive Processes
• Simple diffusion
• Carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion
• Channel-mediated facilitated diffusion
• Osmosis
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Passive Processes: Simple Diffusion
• Nonpolar lipid-soluble (hydrophobic)
substances diffuse directly through the
phospholipid bilayer
PLAY
Animation: Diffusion
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Extracellular fluid
Lipidsoluble
solutes
Cytoplasm
(a) Simple diffusion of fat-soluble molecules
directly through the phospholipid bilayer
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 3.7a
Passive Processes: Facilitated Diffusion
• Certain lipophobic molecules (e.g., glucose,
amino acids, and ions) use carrier proteins or
channel proteins, both of which:
• Exhibit specificity (selectivity)
• Are saturable; rate is determined by number of
carriers or channels
• Can be regulated in terms of activity and
quantity
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Facilitated Diffusion Using Carrier Proteins
• Transmembrane integral proteins transport
specific polar molecules (e.g., sugars and
amino acids)
• Binding of substrate causes shape change in
carrier
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Lipid-insoluble
solutes (such as
sugars or amino
acids)
(b) Carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion via a protein
carrier specific for one chemical; binding of substrate
causes shape change in transport protein
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 3.7b
Facilitated Diffusion Using Channel
Proteins
• Aqueous channels formed by transmembrane
proteins selectively transport ions or water
• Two types:
• Leakage channels
• Always open
• Gated channels
• Controlled by chemical or electrical signals
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Small lipidinsoluble
solutes
(c) Channel-mediated facilitated diffusion
through a channel protein; mostly ions
selected on basis of size and charge
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 3.7c
Passive Processes: Osmosis
• Movement of solvent (water) across a
selectively permeable membrane
• Water diffuses through plasma membranes:
• Through the lipid bilayer
• Through water channels called aquaporins
(AQPs)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Water
molecules
Lipid
billayer
Aquaporin
(d) Osmosis, diffusion of a solvent such as
water through a specific channel protein
(aquaporin) or through the lipid bilayer
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 3.7d
Passive Processes: Osmosis
• Water concentration is determined by solute
concentration because solute particles
displace water molecules
• Osmolarity: The measure of total
concentration of solute particles
• When solutions of different osmolarity are
separated by a membrane, osmosis occurs
until equilibrium is reached
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
(a)
Membrane permeable to both solutes and water
Solute and water molecules move down their concentration gradients
in opposite directions. Fluid volume remains the same in both compartments.
Left
compartment:
Solution with
lower osmolarity
Right
compartment:
Solution with
greater osmolarity
Both solutions have the
same osmolarity: volume
unchanged
H2O
Solute
Membrane
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Solute
molecules
(sugar)
Figure 3.8a
(b)
Membrane permeable to water, impermeable to solutes
Solute molecules are prevented from moving but water moves by osmosis.
Volume increases in the compartment with the higher osmolarity.
Left
compartment
Right
compartment
Both solutions have identical
osmolarity, but volume of the
solution on the right is greater
because only water is
free to move
H2O
Membrane
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Solute
molecules
(sugar)
Figure 3.8b
Importance of Osmosis
• When osmosis occurs, water enters or leaves
a cell
• Change in cell volume disrupts cell function
PLAY
Animation: Osmosis
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Tonicity
• Tonicity: The ability of a solution to cause a
cell to shrink or swell
• Isotonic: A solution with the same solute
concentration as that of the cytosol
• Hypertonic: A solution having greater solute
concentration than that of the cytosol
• Hypotonic: A solution having lesser solute
concentration than that of the cytosol
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
(a)
Isotonic solutions
Cells retain their normal size and
shape in isotonic solutions (same
solute/water concentration as inside
cells; water moves in and out).
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
(b)
Hypertonic solutions
Cells lose water by osmosis and
shrink in a hypertonic solution
(contains a higher concentration
of solutes than are present inside
the cells).
(c)
Hypotonic solutions
Cells take on water by osmosis until
they become bloated and burst (lyse)
in a hypotonic solution (contains a
lower concentration of solutes than
are present in cells).
Figure 3.9
Summary of Passive Processes
Process
Simple
diffusion
Facilitated
diffusion
Osmosis
Energy
Source
Kinetic
energy
Kinetic
energy
Kinetic
energy
• Also see Table 3.1
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example
Movement of O2 through
phospholipid bilayer
Movement of glucose into
cells
Movement of H2O through
phospholipid bilayer or
AQPs