Download Changes in Genetic Material your chromosomes are made up of

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Transcript
Review:
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genes
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chromosomes
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DNA
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location of genetic material
Dec 2­1:49 PM
Changes in Genetic Material
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your chromosomes are made up of genes which are considered your genetic material
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sometimes a cell's genetic information can change which will result in a mutation
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mutations can often result in problems for the organism involved because it results in a change in DNA structure
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there can however be good mutations
Dec 2­1:50 PM
1
­ cartoon mutations are different then real life mutation
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not a real mutation
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mutations are changes
in the order of the parts of a gene
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real mutations are
caused by mutagens
Dec 2­2:00 PM
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a mutagen is a substance or factor that causes a mutation ­
there are usually two types of mutagen
(a) Nature
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excessive sunlight (ultra­violet radiation can cause mutation in skin cells (skin cancer)
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exposure to natural elements such as lead or mercury have been shown to cause mutations
Dec 2­2:09 PM
2
(b) Human Activity:
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exposure to cigarette smoke, cleaning products, and industrial waste can cause mutations
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the drug thalidomide was given to pregnant women in the 1950's and resulted in children born with missing limbs
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radiation from nuclear technology can also l
ead to the development of cancerous tumors
Dec 2­2:20 PM
Skin cancer caused by excessive sunlight
(Natural causes)
Dec 2­2:25 PM
3
Mutation caused by thalidomide
(human caused mutation)
Dec 2­2:26 PM
Positive and Negative Mutations
Examples of positive mutation:
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some individuals carry a mutated gene which allows them to resist the HIV virus
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some plants have developed resistance to bacteria and fungal infections
Examples of negative mutation:
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sickle cell anemia changes the shape of red blood cells so that they do not carry adequate amounts of oxygen
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cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease causing a build up of mucus in the lungs and respiratory system
Dec 2­2:47 PM
4
Readings:
Pages 122 ­ 130
Questions:
Page 131: #'s 3,4,5,7,10,12,13,15
Thalidomide Effects:
Dec 2­2:53 PM
Other Mutation Examples:
Tree Man:
Girl With Two Faces:
Genetic Mutations:
Dec 10­8:47 AM
5