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6-1 The Romans Create a Republic
• Main Idea: The early
Romans established a
republic, which grew
powerful and spread its
• SO WHAT?!: Some of
the most fundamental
values and institutions
of Western civilization
began in the Roman
I. The Beginnings of Rome
Rome-753 BC
1. Romulus and Remus
a. Twin sons of Mars and princess
b. abandoned by Tiber River
c. raised by a she-wolf
B. Geography
1. 7 hills
2. Center of Italian peninsula
3. Settled around 1000BC
4. Between 750-500BC-Greek settlers entered the area
a. Romans borrowed religion, agriculture and other cultural ideas from the Greeks
II. The Early Republic
-Republic-form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote to select their leaders.
-Roman Kings?---Overthrown and Romans swore to kill anyone who tried to establish monarchy
A. Patricians and Plebeians
1. Patricians- aristocratic landowners who held most of the power
a. Inherited social status and power
b. Ancestry gave them authority to represent Romans
2. Plebeians- common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up
a. Had right to vote
b. Could not hold
government office
i. Led to formation
of Tribune
-assembly of plebes
with elected
-Similar to what
in US?
B. Twelve Tables (451BC)
1. Written Laws
a. Written on 12 stone/bronze tablets
Why is having the laws written down important? Explain.
C. Government Under the Republic
1. Consuls
a. 2 officials that commanded army and directed government
b. one year term
c. could not run again for 10 years
d. one consul could always overrule (or veto) the other
i. veto-latin for “I forbid”
2. Senate
a. Aristocratic
b. 300 members
c. term-life
d. Centuriate Assembly
i. Citizen soldiers
e. Tribal Assembly
i. Plebeians
ii. Won right to make laws for the republic
3. Dictator
a. Republic could appoint dictator for 6 months
How is the Roman government similar to the United States government? Use
the chart on page 143 for assistance.
The Roman Senate
D. The Roman Army
1. Legion
a. 5000 soldiers
b. Calvary
c. Century-groups of 80 men
i. Each century could act
INDEPENDENT from the legion
III. Rome Spreads Its Power
Rome Conquers Italy
1. Gauls (Celtic people) sack Rome-390BC
2. Different rules for everyone they conquered
a. Conquered Greece and Etruscans
What are the implications of different rules for different people?
B. Rome’s Commercial Network
1. Location was good for trade
2. 2 cities vied for control of the Mediterranean Sea
a. Rome and Carthage
C. War with Carthage (Punic Wars)
1. First Punic War (264-241BC)
a. Rome defeated Carthage
b. took Sicily as its prize
2. Second Punic War (202 BC)
a. Hannibal
i. 29 years old
ii. led 50,000 infantry, 9000
iii. 60 elephants to Rome
-By the time he reached Italy
lost over ½ men and most of
the elephants
-Never captured Rome
b. Scipio attacks Zama
i. forces Hannibal to retreat
Hannibal going over the Alps
3. Third Punic War (149-146 BC)
a. Carthage was no threat
b. Revenge
c. Cato
i. Ended all speeches with “Carthage must be destroyed”
d. 146BC—Carthage destroyed (burnt for 10 days)
i. 50,000 inhabitants sold into slavery
ii. 900 Roman deserters- “‘Wretch!’ she screamed, in a voice which raised itself
above the universal din, ‘is it thus you seek to save your own life while you
sacrifice ours? I cannot reach you in your own person, but I kill you hereby
in the persons of your children.’”
-Abbott, History of Hannibal
iii. Land sown with salt
Was the third Punic War necessary? Why or why not?
By 70BC Rome controlled area from Anatolia to Spain
Next…Roman Empire Brings