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... There are many stories about Hannibal found across a variety of texts and genres. No
other external enemy of Rome had the same impact on Roman literature over time as the
Carthaginians and their extraordinary general, Hannibal. This thesis compares the
presentations of some iconic themes and events ...
- Nottingham ePrints
... helped in numerous ways, especially on Nicopolis and Apollo. The Department of
Classics, University of Nottingham, especially Katharina Lorenz and Lisa Trentin for
helping with questions on art history and Kyriaki Konstantinidou. I would also like to
thank my former MA supervisor Jesper Carlsen, Itt ...
PDF hosted at the Radboud Repository of the Radboud University
... The mad monarchs of Roman history, with all their peculiarities and the
countless anecdotes that surround their lives, form a fascinating topic of
research. This book focuses on one of those ‘insane despots’. The emperor
Commodus was the first purple-born Roman emperor, and according to our
... It is true that the comitia centuriata at which the consuls were elected was
structured with a bias against the poorer citizens (more on this later), such that their votes
carried less weight. But if even according to Sallust “most of the young men, and
especially the sons of the nobility, favored t ...
reinterpretations of the struggle of the orders
... What did Roman authors in various genres think they were doing when they wrote
about the past? How did the Romans try to understand their history, and how did they
give meaning to stories of their past? It is clear that some embellishment of the narrative
tradition of early Rome took place between o ...
A Novus Homo in Arpinum to a Cicero in Rome
... support, encouragement and advice throughout the entire process of writing my thesis.
I am grateful to the faculty and staff at the Pennsylvania State University’s Department of
Classics for supporting me throughout my undergraduate career and assisting me in finding my
research focus. David Lunt in ...
REFRACTIONS OF ROME - A review of fixed bed gasification
... of cities. He even implies at the beginning of the Pharsalia that Caesar’s armies may
annihilate the city of Rome itself. Nevertheless, Caesar enters the city in Book 3
without spilling blood and no conflicts occur at Rome during the remainder of the
epic’s narrative. It is tempting but simplistic t ...
- CUNY Academic Works
... resolution, effectively confining and directing the powers vested in him. On the other
hand, the dictatorship, itself a demonstration of Rome’s adaptability by providing early on
a second, emergency system to fix what the normal state could not, also adroitly changed
as Rome did: new, single-task va ...
... However, the comparison extends beyond merely holding either blood or milk
above the other. By discussing blood and milk within the same breath, Volumnia
makes a connection between her role as a mother ...
Cicero`s Catilinarian Orations: A Study in
... aware of the conscious effort of the orator to win them
over emotionally in the beginning, and to leave them
with an exalted or a commiserative heart at the end.
Deeper research into this phenomenon shows that the
orators of antiquity were most concerned with the emotional side of their oratory.
this document as a
... Cicero and Clodius.--Position and Character of Clodius.--Cato sent to
Cyprus.--Attempted Recall of Cicero defeated by Clodius.--Fight in the
Forum.--Pardon and Return of Cicero.--Moderate Speech to the People.-Violence in the Senate.--Abuse of Piso and Gabinius.--Coldness of the
Senate toward Cicer ...
i Caligula Unmasked
... relate the event.30 Furthermore, in AD 39 Caligula appointed officials to various
provinces, such as Galba and Petronius, who were capable of doing their tasks well, proof
that he could make important decisions if the need arose.31 At the persuading of Herod
Agrippa, Caligula also decided to change ...
james anthony froude caesar: a sketch
... entirely depended upon are brought to an end.
The secondary group of authorities from which the popular histories of the
time have been chiefly taken are Appian, Plutarch, Suetonius, and Dion
Cassius. Of these the first three were divided from the period which they
describe by nearly a century and a ...
A promagistrate (Latin: pro magistratu) is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. A legal innovation of the Roman Republic, the promagistracy was invented in order to provide Rome with governors of overseas territories instead of having to elect more magistrates each year. Promagistrates were appointed by senatus consultum; like all acts of the Roman Senate, these appointments were not entirely legal and could be overruled by the Roman assemblies, e.g., the replacement of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus by Gaius Marius during the Jugurthine War.Promagistrates were usually either proquaestors (acting in place of quaestors), propraetors, acting in place of praetors, or proconsuls acting in place of consuls. A promagistrate held equal authority to the equivalent magistrate, was attended by the same number of lictors, and generally speaking had autocratic power within his province, be it territorial or otherwise. Promagistrates usually had already held the office in whose stead they were acting, although this was not mandatory.One should also mention here the procurator, a posting originally as a financial manager in a province, a position which held no magisterial power until Claudius gave them his power in the mid 40s AD, enabling them to administer provinces.The institution of promagistracies developed because the Romans found it inconvenient to continue adding ordinary magistracies to administer their newly acquired overseas possessions. Therefore, they adopted the practice of appointing an individual to act in place or capacity of (pro) a magistrate (magistratu); a promagistrate was literally a lieutenant. Subsequently, when Pompeius Magnus was given proconsular imperium to fight against Quintus Sertorius, the Senate made a point of distinguishing that he was not actually being appointed a promagistrate: he was appointed to act not in place of a consul (pro consule), but on behalf of the consuls (pro consulibus).The Roman legal concept of imperium meant that an ""imperial"" magistrate or promagistrate had absolute authority within the competence of his office; a promagistrate with imperium appointed to govern a province, therefore, had absolute authority within his capacity as governor of that province; indeed, the word provincia referred both to the governor's office or jurisdiction and to the territory he governed. A provincial governor had almost totally unlimited authority, and frequently extorted vast amounts of money from the provincial population — he had total immunity from prosecution during his term in office. It became fairly common for provincial governors to seek continual election to office to avoid trial for extortion and bribery, two famous examples being Gaius Verres and Lucius Sergius Catilina.The near limitless power of a high-ranking promagistrate has led to the term ""proconsul"" being used to designate any high-ranking and authoritative official appointed from above (or from without) to govern a territory without regard for local political institutions (i.e., one who is not elected and whose authority supersedes that of local officials). One of the most prominent examples of this is Douglas MacArthur, who was given vast powers to implement reform and recovery efforts in Japan after World War II, and has been described occasionally as ""the American proconsul of Japan"".